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How to buy custom research paper building business us letter size harvard platinum Trends in Production and Productivity of Pulses in Punjab Satvinder Kaur Abstract: This study aims to examine the trends in area, production and yield of pulses related to the period from 1970-71 to 2010-11 for India in general and Punjab in particular .Despite being the cheapest as well as richest source of protein, enriching the soil fertility, increasing the soil organic matter and improving the soil structure and having a significant positive impact on green house gas emissions, the area under pulses and production and yield of pulses continuously decreasing since 1970’s.

Both the Agriculture Development Model (Green Revolution) of mid -sixties which transform the country's image from a food grain deficit nation to a self-sufficient and stable economy and New Economic Policy of early 19 90’s have not been proved beneficial for the pulse crop Should i buy custom research paper building no plagiarism College 92 pages / 25300 words American the Agriculture Development Model (Green Revolution) of mid -sixties which transform the country's image from a food grain deficit nation to a self-sufficient and stable economy and New Economic Policy of early 19 90’s have not been proved beneficial for the pulse crop Jump to Best websites to purchase an ecology report graduate 46 pages   - If you have additional files, you will upload them at the order !   2 page/approx 550 words 3   Where to buy a ecology lab report no   -to-get-a-custom-ecology-essay-asa-academic-platinum.   laboratory report cbe us letter size  .Both the Agriculture Development Model (Green Revolution) of mid -sixties which transform the country's image from a food grain deficit nation to a self-sufficient and stable economy and New Economic Policy of early 19 90’s have not been proved beneficial for the pulse crop Should i buy custom research paper building no plagiarism College 92 pages / 25300 words American the Agriculture Development Model (Green Revolution) of mid -sixties which transform the country's image from a food grain deficit nation to a self-sufficient and stable economy and New Economic Policy of early 19 90’s have not been proved beneficial for the pulse crop.

The results show that at the all India level, the production of pulses grew at a dismal rate of 0.6 per cent per annum whereas pulse production revealed a negative growth of 7 Jump to Get custom writing help case study interdisciplinary studies no-research paper 76 pages / 20900 wordsreport ASA 79 pages / 21725 wordsan building case study 88 pages 2420029425 words double spacedHow to get an ecology report british a4 british european formatting nbsp.6 per cent per annum whereas pulse production revealed a negative growth of 7 Jump to Get custom writing help case study interdisciplinary studies no-research paper 76 pages / 20900 wordsreport ASA 79 pages / 21725 wordsan building case study 88 pages 2420029425 words double spaced .6 per cent per annum whereas pulse production revealed a negative growth of 7 How to get an ecology report british a4 british european formatting nbsp.

6 per cent per annum whereas pulse production revealed a negative growth of 7.

75 per cent per annum in Punjab during the study main attributed factor of declining tendency of pulses i s found to be significant fall in area under the crop with poor and marginal increase in the yield rates.The results concluded that the pre- reform period (1970 -71 to 1990-91) was far better than the post-reform period (1991-92 to 2010-11) as far as growth of area and production of pulses in Punjab is study suggests for diversify the cropping pattern through development of agro-industrial pulse products and pulse processing industries in the state and encouragement to the farmers to increase allocation of area under the so, assignment of quota for pulse crop to each Punjab’s farmer under assured procurement and minimum support price programme will ensure a gradual and painless reduction in area under wheat and uction Pulses are the cheapest as well as richest source of protein for the mass of the people in India.The importance of pu lses as food, fodder and manure, is immense.Most pulses contain a higher percentage of protein as compared to even superior cereals like wheat and rice which have only 11.

5 per cent of protein content, pulses like gram, urad and masur con tain are not only rich in protein but also in carbohydrate, fibre, vitamin B and low in fat which is mostly of the unsaturated from the nutritional aspect of the pulses, they occupy an important p lace in the crop sequence, inter- cropping and as a crop mixture in different regions of the enrich the soil fertility by fixing atmospheric nitrogen in the root nodules and improve soil tap root system opens the soil into dee per strata and heavy leaf protein increases the soil organic matter and improves the soil structure.

The inclusion of pulse crops in rotation with cereal and oilseed crops is considered to have a significant positive impact on green house gas emissions, gi ven the absence of fertilizer 'N' in pulse crop is the world's largest pulse producer accounting for 27 -28 per cent of global pulse production and harvests between 12-15 million tones of pulses each were 23282 (000’ hectares) of area under pulses in 2009-10 as against 22543 (000’ hectares) in 1991 -92 and 1970-71 and the production was 14661, (000’ metric tonnes), 12015 (000’ metric tonnes) and 11818 (000’metric tonnes) respectively for these years, whereas the yield rates are 629 (kg/hectare), 532 (kg/hectares) and Satvinder Kaur 524 (kg/hectares) for the same principal growing states are Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and general, pulses are grown in two seasons, one in the warm, rainy period (May -October) and other in the cool, dry season (November-April).They are largel y cultivated in dry -lands during the winter causes behind increase in demand of pulses are continuous and sharp increase in population and its characteristics of cheapest source of diet and the supply side, its yie ld is static, growth is slow and a number of marketing problems are to this demand supply imbalance, the country is importing a large amount of pulses to meet the growing domestic needs.79 million tonnes of various pulses, especially from the countries like China, Canada, Australia and has led to a spurt in the prices of pulses (Honalli, 2009).Punjab has played a vital role in transforming the country's image from a foodgrain deficit nation to a self-sufficient and stable economy due to use of modern technology (Economic Survey of Punjab, 2009-10).Agriculture sector continues to be an important driver in the state economy.

The progress made by the agriculture sector in the state of Punjab since adoption of Agriculture Development Model of 1966 -67 commonly known as green revolution, is so well known that one need not cite any statistics to prove this total food grain production in Punjab has significantly increased over the last few deca des, especially in the post green revolution notable achievement is reflected in the five -fold increase in the index of production of cereals during the period 1960 -61 to 1982-83 (Grewal and Rangi, 1983).54 per cent of geographical area produced 12.61 per cent rice in the country (Statistical Abstract of Punjab, 2010 -11).But the future may not held the production possibilities realised earlier since these ac hievements are indeed creditable but there is no reason for which are an important part of farming household consumption lost its ground since the introduction of new technology.The new technology shifted the cropping pattern from mixe d crops towards the mono-culture (wheat - paddy cycle) government policies like of the announcement of procurement prices and minimum support price played a positive part for such proper marketing facilities also played an important role for wheat and rice revolution in diverse cropping pattern existing in the early Sixties is now restricted to a few specialized crop cereal crops in particular have come to claim a large percentage of the total cropped area whereas the area under pulses has declined.

The area under cereals increased from 45.26 per cent in 2010-11 of the total cropped the other hand, the area under pulses declined from 19.25 per cent during the same period cereals , rice during Kharif and wheat during Rabi occupy a place of prominence in the cropping pattern of the state.This shift in the cropping pattern took place as a consequence of relative profitability determined by various economic forces especially relative yield, price and their stability (Chatha and Singh, 1985).Trends in Pro duction and Productivity of Pulses in Punjab International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.

2, July 2013 3 The production of pulses is not only stagnant but even decreasing in the production of pulses recorded was only 23 thousand metric tonnes in 2007 -08 whereas the total production of foodgrains constitutes 26.81 metric tonnes in the state which was the second highest after Uttar Prades h.63 million hectares under pulses in the country, area under pulses in Punjab was 28.6 thousand hectares for the same year, which is quite is a sharp fall in the area and production of pulses in Punjab since were 414 (000’ hectares) of area under pulses in 1970-71 as against 90 (000’ hectares) in 1991-92 and 20 (000’ hectares) in 2010-11 respectively in Punjab.The production constitute 308 (000 ’ metric tonnes), 75 (000’ metric tonnes) and 17 (000’metric tonnes) in 1970-71, 1991-92 and 2010-11 far as yield rates are concerned it was 743 (kg/hectares), 833 (kg/hectares) and 850 (kg/ hectares) for the same increase in productivity has been confined to cereals, but ther e has been declining trends in pulses productivity in the some efforts to promote high yielding varieties of pulses have been made since the early seventies, they do not seem to have succeeded average yield of pulses in India is 629 kg/hectare whereas in Punjab state it is 888 kg/ hectare, which is higher as compared to national average but quite low as compared to rice and wheat yields in the state (Statistical Abstract of Punjab, 2010 -11).

The yield rates of pulses are higher in Punjab as compare to India mainly because of adoption of New Agricultural Practices in the er, though the yield rates are higher there is decline in production of pulses in the state whereas even with low yield rates compare to Punjab, increase in the production of pulses is observed at all India is due to the fact that area allocation is the major factor observed for increase in the production of a case of pulses decline in area is much higher than increase in its yield rates in this backdrop, an endeavour has been made in this paper to examine the trends in area, production and yield of pulses in Punjab and to ascertain the factors associated with the observed trends.Objectives The most important objective of this paper is to attempt a detail analysis of pulse production in India in general and Punjab in specifically the study is concentrated on the following objectives: 1.To analyse the trends in area, production and yield of pulses in study the trends in area, production and yield of pulses in Punjab.To find the factors responsible or constraints hindering the growth of pulses in Base and Methodology For the purpose of analysis, the study is restricted to the period 1970-71 (the year after immediate effects/results of green revolution in Punjab) to 2010-11 for which the latest data is total study period is divided into three parts., 1970-71 to 1990-91- a pre-reform period, Period II refers to 1991-92 to 2010-11- the post reform period and Period III from 1970-71 to 2010-11- the total period of order to achieve the objectives of the study the secondary data has been used w hich is obtained from Statistical Abstracts of India and Statistical Abstracts of Punjab for various order to calculate the average annual growth rate of area, production and yield of pulses log-lin model has been used which is found to fit best has been separately fitted for each of time periods for India and Punjab .

The equation for log-lin model is as under: Satvinder Kaur Yt = y0(1+ r) t Where ris the compound rate of growth of Y.in order to make the equation linear we take natural logarithm on both sides of equation no.(ix) ln yt = ln yo+ t ln(1+ r) Now letting 1=ln yoand 2= ln (1 + r) lnYt= 1 + 2t + ui 1= the intercept.-------------------------- (1) Results and Discussion The information about the average annual growth rates of area, production and yield of pulses in India and Punjab during Period I- the pre reform period, Period II- the post reform period and Period III- the entire study period in India and Punjab is given in Table 1.The annual average growth rate of area under pulses registered static from 1970 -71 to 2010-11 in India which is a matter of serious concern of pulse availability, soil fertility and agricultural emp irical results of the study also revealed that the area under pulses recorded a poor exponential growth rate of only 0.

03 per cent and remains s tagnant between 1960 to 2000 (Selvaraj and Ramasamy, 2002).However, both yield and production grew at a dismal rate of only 0.It is clearly revealed that increase in production of pulses is only attributed to increase in yield of th e crop rather than any significant role of area in the 1: Compound Growth Rates of Area, Production and Yield of Pulses in India and Punjab from 1970-71 to 2010-11 (-30.23) Source: The values are computed on the ba sis of the year wise data on area, production and yield of pulses in India and Punjab collected from Statistical Abstract of India and Statistical Abstract of Punjab, Various : Figures in parentheses indicates t-values, *significant at 5 per cent level, **insignificant at 5 per cent level Trends in Pro duction and Productivity of Pulses in Punjab International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 5 The table further indicates that in Punjab, the values of growth rate are registered to be negatively high and significant for area i.

96 per cent per annum over the entire period of values of growth rate of yield shows a positive but insignificant growth rate of 0.However, the growth rate for production of pulses is found to be negative and significant i.The results clearly indicate that the decline in area with marginal increase in yield rates leads to decrease in production of pulses in the poor performance of pulses since 1970 -71 in Punjab is mainly attributed to increase in the area under wheat and rice after adoption of Agricultu ral Development Model in high profitability and yield rates of wheat and rice in comparison to pulses encourage farmers to grow these crops in fertile land with use of all yield raising inputs and improved cultural government policies like of the announcement of procurem ent prices and minimum support price played a positive part for such proper marketing facilities also played an important role for wheat and rice revolution in Punjab.At the same time the continuous decline in the production of pulses must be taken to be an indicator of the basic weakness in the production techniques of pulses at the farm primitive farm management practices of the average pulse grower have made pulse crops into low-value or inferior pulses are generally grown as mixed crops, for fuel and fodder or as the second crop, the farmer gives secondary importance to the pulse crop, i., from the point of view of cultural practices and devote poor attention to the pulses cultivation.

More so, they are vulnerable to a number of diseases and pests which further make their cultivation uneconomic on comparative grounds with other crops and caused to decrease in area under l fungal bacterial and viral diseases cause heavy damages to pulse lik e borer, jassids, thrups, bugs and others mostly feed on these crops and reduce their productivity (Bhushan and Sobti, 1992).Furthermore, there is no assured procurement and announcement of minimum support prices of pulse crop by the present system of marketing of pulses is also full of number of malpractices.It is dominated by large number of middlemen who exploit both consumers and commission agents are the buyers themselves who sell the produce to the retailers, as there is no assured procurement by government producers share in consumer's rupee stands very is no effective mechanism for facilitating the transfer of latest research findings and technologie s developed by Research bodies/institutions and order to encourage farmers to increase area under pulses, awareness can be amplified by government, research bodies and agricultural universities by providing importance of pulses in nutritional diet and to improve soil fertility and soil st ructure.Moreover, the values of average annual growth rate of area shows a dismal increase of 0.Whereas it exhibited insignificant negative growth rate of 0.

The results clearly depicts that the introduction of New Economic Reforms in the country negatively affected the allocation of area under pulses in India.The table also portraits that for Punjab, declining tendency in area with highly significant growth rate of 5.82 per cent per annum is observed during period I and 9.So it may conclude that pulse acreage during 1970 -71 to 2010 -11 has declined Satvinder Kaur with significant rate in Punjab whereas the maximum decline is observed during post-reform decline in area under pulses in Punjab is mainly attributed to shift in croppin g pattern in the state.

There was 3514 (thousand hectares) area under cereals in 1970 -71 which sharply rose to 5548 (thousand hectares) in 1991 -92 and further increase to 6484 (thousand hectares) in er, among the category of cereals, the area under wheat was 2299 (thousand hectares) in 1970-71 increase to 3237 (thousand hectares) in 1991 -92 and 3510 (thousand hectares) in s significant increase in area under rice from 390 (thousand hectares) to 2069 (thousand hectares) and 2826 (thousand hectares) is observed during the same periods r, the area under pulses sharply decline from 414 (thousand hectares) in 1970-71 to 90 (thousand hectares) in 1991 -92 and only 20 (thousand hectares) in 2010-11 (Statistical Abstract of Punjab, Various issues).

Thus, the statistical results clearly depicts that decrease in area under pulses is confined to shift in cropping pattern, i., increase in area under cereals mainly rice and wheat crops in and Bhullar (1982) in their article "Impact of Green Revolution on the Cultivation of Pulses in Punjab" have examined that the area from Rabi pulses shifted to wheat and Kharif pulses to paddy under the stimulus of expanding irrigation facilities, high -yielding varieties of seeds, support price policy and public procurement system of wheat and paddy in the study suggested that there is a strong need to diversify the cropping pattern by shift some area out of cereals, more specifically wheat and paddy to pulses.In order to encourage farmers to shift cropping pattern there is need to develop agro-industrial pulse products and pulse processing industries in the state.It is worth mentioning that practically, a massive reduction in area under wheat and paddy is neither desirable by farmers, nor approved by centre and state ore, assignment of quota for pulse crop to each Punjab’s farmer under assured procurement and minimum support price programme will ensure a gradual and painless reduction in area under wheat and er, as already discussed, the farmers are not willing to shift their area under pulses because of lack of assured procurement policy and remunerative price by the government as it is in case of wheat and order to increase area allocation and production of pulses in the state, there is need to remove malpractices in the marketing of pulses so that farmers can be benefited from remunerative prices and assured procurement of pulses in the all India level, the average growth rate in yield during all periods is found to be positive and significant indicating increasing trend is prominent.On the whole, there is positive but slow growth in yield of pulses in the growth was comparatively high during period I (0.

As far as yield of pulses in P unjab is concerned the growth rate is negati ve during Period I (0.69 per cent), however, observed to be s a poor and dismal increase of 0.20 per cent per annum is observed during Period II and Period order to increase yield rates of pulses in Punjab, high yielding varieties and short duration varieties of pulses should be developed and provided by government to the farmers at subsidized rate .Trends in Pro duction and Productivity of Pulses in Punjab International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 7 After analysis and examining the growth rates of area and yield for India and Punjab f or different time periods, it is felt necessary to analyses the same for India as a whole, the growth rate of production for period I and period III is found to be positive and significant i.

Moreover, the growth rate is observed to insignificant during period above analysis demonstrate that, in general, the all India pulse production grew at a dismal rate of 0.60 per cent per annum between 1970-71 to 2010 -11, the growth of pulse production decreased by 0.5 per cent per year during period II - the post reform period compare to period I- pre reform period.A study by Tuteja (2006) also examine that the pre -reform period (1980 -90) was far better than the post reform period (1990 -2000) as f ar as growth in area, production and yield of pulses in India is s by Nadkarni (1986), Acharya (1989) and Bhatia (1991) related to the period from 1970 -71 to 1990-91 examined that the major constraints affecting the growth in production of pulses in India are technological, viz, their lower yield and lower responsiveness to irrigation and fertilizers and low level technology with poor management under high risk is further examine that for Punjab, the growth rate is found to be negative and significant during all the periods under study which indicate that total production of pulses over years has decreased.It is also found that the decline in production of pulses is observed to be highest (9.

01 per cent) during Period II followed by Period III (7.So it may be concluded that the production of pulses from 1970-71 to 2010-11 has declined whereas maximum decline is observed during Period II, i.Conclusion The compound growth rates of pulses worked out for the study period at all India level shows that the growth in area under pulses is almost stagnant for the period 1970 -71 to 2010-11 whereas growth in yield is less than one percent per far the production is concerned it grew at a dismal rate of 0.6 per cent per annum during the entire study period.In case of Punjab, the computed results depict a sharp falling tendency in area as well as production of pulses since the period 1970-71 to 2010-11 the production revealed a negative gr owth rate of 7.

The major contributing factor of this negative growth rate is observed to be area under pulses which decline at the rate of 7.96 per cent per annum, whereas the yield revealed a positive though marginal increase of 0.The study indicates that the dismal increase in yield rates with poor acreage, i., decline in area under pulses attributed to falling tendency of production of pulses in the state.Satvinder Kaur 8International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.

(1985), ‘Causes of Stagnation in Production of Pulses and Oilseeds in Punjab’, Agricultural Situation in India, no.Central Statistical Organisation (CSO), Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MSPI), (1970-2010) Statistical Abstract of India, New Delhi: MSPI ic and Statistical Organisation (ESO), Government of Punjab, (2008-09) Economic Survey of Punjab, Chandigarh: ESO ’, Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol.(1983), ‘An Analytical Study of Growth of Punjab Agriculture’, Department of Economics and Sociology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana.(2009), A Study of Problems and Prospects of Redgram (Tur) Crop With Reference to Cultivation, Processing and Marketing in Gulbaraga District, PhD theses, Shivaji University, Kolhapur.(2002), ‘Pulses, Oilseeds and Course Cereals: Why They Are Slow Growth Crops’, Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, vol.

(2006), ‘Growth Performance and Acreage Response of Pulse Crops : A State Level Analysis’, Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, ational Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 9 Enrolment of Health Insurance Schemes for Industrial Workers in Coimbatore – An Awareness Profile N.Sangamithra Abstract: One of the major insecurities for workers in the unorganized sector is the frequent incidences of illness and need for medical care and hospitalization of such workers and their family insurance is one way of providing protection to poor households against the risk of health spending leading to r, most efforts to provide health insurance in the past have faced difficulties in both design and poor are unable or unwilling to take up hea lth insurance because of its cost, or lack of perceived benefits.The primary data was collected through interview schedule.The convenient sampling method was adopted to take 1500 samples from both engineering and textile industries in Coimbatore findings of the study clearly establish the fact that, educational status of the respondents plays a vital role in enrolling the health insurance schemes in Coimbatore city, r awareness about the importance of health insurance and the demand for the health insurance would be higher among educated respondents, especially among those who go beyond secondary school and above and thereby, large number of such persons enrolls themselves for health to educational status, current age of the respondents appear to be the major deciding factor whether the respondents got enrolling themselves for health insurance or is also conspicuous to note that respondents whose family monthly income is better have higher likelihood of enrolling themselves for health insurance as compared to those who belong to families in which monthly income is low.

Enrolling for health insurance are found to be higher and significant at a moderate level among the females as compared to their male counter of the workers reported that they are not covered by any health insurance plans or medical claim develop a viable health insurance scheme, it is important to understand people’s perceptions and develop a package that is accessible, available, affordable and acceptable to all sections of the ment should come out with a clear cut policy, where the public can be made to contribute compulsorily to a health insurance scheme to ensure unnecessary out-of pocket expenditures and also better utilization of their health care facilities.1 Introduction In India, the unorganised sector has employed almost 93% of the total labour force of the the betterment of the people the government has implemented a number of social security measures in general and few measures in particular for occupational groups, but the failures of these schemes were witnessed by practical implementation problems and as a consequence majority of targeted people were still not covered by these social security of the major problems faced by the unorganised workforce is the frequent incidence of illness and prerequisite medical care and hospitalisation to the e the enormous development in the health care facilities, aliments remain one the significant determinant of human deprivation in overcome these problems economists, policymakers and econometricians of many developed and developing economies have identified investment on health/health insurance is one way of providing securities to the uncovered beneficiaries of N.Sangamithra 10 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 household against the uncertain health expenses which leads not only the victim but also the whole society into the vicious circle of the other hand, almost every effort of government and private sector to provide health insurance coverage to the needed have f aced many discrepancies both in design, targeted group and implementation.This specific social issue has attracted many researchers to make enquire this field and make it as a specialization and found that many poor are still unwilling to participate in the health insurance schemes due to lack of awareness, high cost and lack of perceived benefits.

2 Statement of the Problem and Need for the Study It is by now well established that most Indians pay large amounts out -of-pocket for covering their health costs: three quarters of health spending in India comes from households’ out-of-pocket disbursements (Berman 1998, Ellis et one takes only primary curative care, household spending forms the majority of this expenditure in India.In addition to just expenditure, the elaborate government health care system believes the fact that the private health care sector has grown at a phenomenal rate and today form an equally significant part of the health system in has been observed that with the growth in income, high purchasing power and the expansion of the middle class urban India has witnessed a tremendous growth in the private health care system (Sundar 1992, World Bank 1993).The health status of urban population is peculiar in character as majority of them are floating population and the awareness of urban industrial workers about various health problems like curative, maternal and child health differ widely due to differences in their socio-economic set vulnerable sections in the urban areas are suffering from morbidity problems especially diseases of poverty and are not having enough access to health care to the low income, they provide first priority to food and later only for treatment.Access to health care systems is deeply conditioned by one’s possession and income (World Bank, 1998).Financial barrier is still a dominant problem for access to necessary healthcare for majority of the ensure universal and comprehensive healthcare to its citizens, alternative healthcare financing strategies like health insurance are being widely r, despite health insurance being an equitable and eff icient solution, the health insurance coverage still remains at an infant stage in our has to be recalled that India does not have a history of a high level of health insurance coverage at once upon a time and the coverage falling to the present level so that we have enough lessons to list out why the health insurance coverage is at very low level.

In fact, so far there have been no significant studies that have addressed this particular a demand side perspective, several studies indicate that people are willing to pay for health insurance (Dror et al., 2007; Gumber and Kulkarni 2000; Mathiyazhagan 1998; Sodani 2001).Moreover, the existence of a partially subsidized public healthcare system, absence of proper awareness on risk pooling forms of health insurance, poor trust in insurance companies and the inability of the people in the informal sector to deal with insurance companies are some of the other plausible reasons for the low level of health insurance intake in India (Vellakkal, 2008).How to purchase a recreation management essay chicago turabian 46 nbsp Industrialization is necessary for prosperity and at times for the survival of a nation.

The production is the real wealth of a industrialization is not enough, real benefit is brought by continuous top performance of the worker which is only possible by their good health I am sorry for off-topic, I am thinking about building an informative site for individuals.

/where-to-order-an-consumer-law-research-proposal-british-writing-from-scratch-asa-onlineI've found loads of helpful information on your site particularly this page.Only industrialization is not enough, real benefit is brought by continuous top performance of the worker which is only possible by their good health.Industrial workers constitute only a segment of general population and the factors that influence the health of the population also apply Enrolment of Health Insurance Schemes for Industrial Workers in Coimbatore International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 11 equally to industrial workers.

Health care financing of industrial workers is undoubtedly an issue that calls for more research by experts and activists Yara International ASA was established in 2004 when thefertilizers, building on a unique business model: With ourfrom standard nitrogen fertilizers toa Board member of the Norwegian Society of Chartered Scientificterms.Yara International ASA consists of thePage 46.Health care financing of industrial workers is undoubtedly an issue that calls for more research by experts and the healthcare market is witnessing several players offering health insurance schemes to mitigate the expenditure that may arise due to unforeseen disturbance in the health of ies of policies exist in the market that suits the differing needs of persons seeking to insure their are the workers really aware of such kinds of policies that are in force? How do they come to know about such policies? Is it true that those who have become aware of such insurance programmes have taken up policies to ensure that they incur less when they become sick? If no, what has forbidden them? Has price of insurance remained a prohibitive factor? If yes, are the workers prepared to come under an insurance cover the cost of which is the least? In order to seek solu tions to these questions, the present study has focused on the Enrolment of Health Insurance Schemes for the Industrial Workers in Coimbatore city.Based on the enormous survey of earlier empirical studies related to Health Insurance the following objective was framed; 1.

The Study Area Coimbatore is one of the most industrially developed cities in Tamil Nadu and has the pride of being called the “Manchester of South India”.Coimbatore is the third largest city in Tamil Nadu state in India; it has more than 40,000 small, medium and large-scale industries, which serve the engineering needs of the major parts of the country.The city is known for its dynamic people and excellent entrepreneurial spirit of the business community here is renowned across the city is the second largest software producer in Tamil Nadu, next to decision to select foundry and textile industries is due to the fact that the industrial activity in Coimbatore region depends more on these units and the workers of these units are prone to health hazards due to is essential for them to know the existing health insurance facilities.The present study relates to the health insurance enrolment among industrial workers in urban ng Design predefined questionnaire in both foundry and textile industries for the equal r, while collecting the data, 53 respondents did not respond at the time of a total of 1447 respondents were selected for the final study.Due to the nature of selected issue and outcomes a “convenient sampling method” was ons relating to personal profile of the respondents and the benefits availed from health insurance schemes and problems faced by the respondents were also included in the deriving the total sample size (i.

1447), gathered information were coded in SPSS package for further process.The study has e mployed percentage method to elicit the nature of N.Sangamithra 12 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 the respondents and their awareness regarding health insurance schemes.To test the pre -defined null hypothesis, the study has also adopted a logistic regression model to determine the factors determining t he probability of enrolment in health insurance schemes among the selected industrial tion of Data For collecting the data, the respondents were interviewed personally and given a brief description about the nature and purpose of the required for the study were collected through interview schedule which was administered among the workers of foundry (engineering) and textiles industries in from this, secondary data relating to textile industries were collected from South Indian Mills Owners Association (SIMA), South Indian Textile Research Association (SITRA) and Small Spinners Association (SSA).

Foundry industries data are collected from Coimbatore District Small Scale Industries Association (CODISSIA), The South Indian Engineering Manufacturing Association (SIEMA), Coimbatore and District Industrial Center (DIC), the first stage, the name and the addresses of the Industrial units were the next stage number of workers employed in te xtile and foundry units were identified based on the number of units, and the total workers were chosen randomly depending on the number of employees on the roll at the time of the tical background of the Logistic Regression Model (LRM) iiiiiiii 5.Earlier Studies Related to Health Insurance The literature review is an important step in any research of earlier studies discloses the works and studies done by individual researchers and institutions and help to establish the need for further attempt has been made in the study to review the earlier studies relating to the enrollment of health insurance among industrial the contributors, the most prominent studies and findings were given by Gruber (1994), Laurence Levin (1995), Sheiner (1997), Liu and Christianson (1998), Sapelli and Torche (2001), Janet Currie and Jonathan Gruber (2001), Robert Kaestner and Kosali Ilayperuma Simon (2002), Kate Bundorf (2002), Dong et al.

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(2004), Matthew and Christopher (2005), Finn and Harman (2006), Dror et.(2006), Pedro Enrolment of Health Insurance Schemes for Industrial Workers in Coimbatore International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.With this strong conviction in the field of Health Insurance the present study has been ess about Health Insurance Schemes The health insurance is a vital method of financing the spiraling costs of medical high cost of hospital services coupled with the unpredictability of health needs and the inadequacy of personal savings is the primary reason for the growing importance of insurance as a means of financing health services Who can do a college homework functional analysis Academic US Letter Size College Junior Custom writing.

With this strong conviction in the field of Health Insurance the present study has been ess about Health Insurance Schemes The health insurance is a vital method of financing the spiraling costs of medical high cost of hospital services coupled with the unpredictability of health needs and the inadequacy of personal savings is the primary reason for the growing importance of insurance as a means of financing health services.

Inspite of the growing importance of health insurance schemes the number of people covered by health insurance is very less in has been found that one of the major reasons for low health insurance coverage in India is the lack of awareness of the health schemes by the tly in India, only 2 million people (0.2 per cent of the total population of 1 billion) are covered under Mediclaim, the most popular health insurance scheme in India, whereas in developed nations like U., about 75 per cent of the total population are covered under one or the other insurance this background, an attempt has been made to know whether the industrial workers are aware of health insurance schemes or 1 shows that out of 1447 sample workers, 489 workers (33 Buy a college functional analysis homework one day A4 (British/European) College Freshman British., about 75 per cent of the total population are covered under one or the other insurance this background, an attempt has been made to know whether the industrial workers are aware of health insurance schemes or 1 shows that out of 1447 sample workers, 489 workers (33.8 per cent) were aware of health insurance schemes while 958 workers (66.It can be concluded that most of them are not aware of the insurance policies covering health aspect and some are not aware of any insurance schemes because of rural or semi-urban background, less education and less exposure to the modern er, lack of publicity of various health insurance schemes happens to be an important factor for this 1: Awareness of Health Insurance Schemes Awareness about Health 7.

Enrolment of the Health Insurance Schemes The escalating cost of medical treatment today is beyond the reach of a common man.In case of a medical emergency, cost of hospital room rent, the doctor's fees, medicines and related health services can work out to be a huge such times, health in surance provides the much needed financial investment in health insurance scheme would be a judicious health insurance scheme could either be a personal scheme or a group scheme sponsored by an of the existing health insurance schemes currently available are individual, family, group insurance schemes, and senior citizens insurance schemes, long-term health care and insurance cover for specific diseases.Table 2 explains that out of 1447 sample respondents, a majority of 1034 workers (71.5 per cent) are not enrolled in the health insurance schemes and only 413 workers (28.5 per cent) have enrolled in those reason behind that is due to low level of literacy they are unaware of the health insurance scheme and the wage level also determined not to take the health insurance schemes.

14 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 Table 2: Enrolment of the Health Insurance Schemes Enrolment of Health Insurance Unpredictability of health needs and inadequacy of personal savings together create the need for health insurance companies in India, mainly GIC and LIC provide various health insurance schemes to the provides the most popular health insurance scheme namely, Mediclaim and also the Jan Arogya Bhima Central Government provides a contributory health scheme to its employees called the Central Government Health Scheme (CGHS) from 1954 and an insurance scheme called Employees State Insurance Scheme (ESIS) from 1948, both schemes meant for the employees working in the public sector enterprises in the country.Thus, the government role in organizing and financing health insurance is limited to these two major this context, an attempt was made to know from the workers about the type of insurance coverage they are 3 reveals that out of 413 sample respondents 150 workers have tak en the private health insurance schemes, 115workers taken the Government Schemes, 113 workers taken the Government Insurance Schemes and 35 workers taken the Employees State Insurance Scheme which constituted around 3: Types of Health Insurance Schemes The Insurance Schemes 9.Motivation for Joining the Health Insurance Schemes The motivation for the health insurance schemes can be classified into seven categories such as Nobody, Self, Media, Newspaper, Friends/Relatives, Insurance agent, Insurance Beneficiary and Employer.Table 4 reveals that out of 413 sample workers, 95 workers (23 per cent) reported that their employer is taking the health insurance for them, 84 workers were (20.

3 per cent) motivated by insurance agents, 80 workers (19.4 per cent) by media advertisement, 69 workers (16.7 per cent)by their friends and relatives, 36 workers (8.7 per cent) reported they are taken insurance policy out of their own interest 34 workers (8.2 per cent) reported they are taken insurance policy through news paper advertisement, and 15 workers (3.

6 per cent) reported that they have gathered the information from the insurance beneficiaries.2 per cent) of the workers were advised by their employers because Enrolment of Health Insurance Schemes for Industrial Workers in Coimbatore International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 15 the employer is collaborating with the private insurance company and pay the premium amoun t from their wages.For this reason both the insurance company and the employee are getting the 4: Motivation for Joining the Health Insurance Schemes Health Insurance Scheme Logistic regression measures the relationship between a categorical dependent variable and one or more independent variables, which are usually continuous, by using probability scores as the predicted values of the dependent attempt is made to find out the principle factors that are likely to affect the respondents’ enrolment of health this purpose, the respondents’ enrolment for health insurance has been considered as dependent variable as dichotomous viz.

, whether the respondent enrolls himself / herself for health insurance (by assigning a score of ‘1’) or not (score of ‘0’) and all the independent variables as categories.

In such a condition, adopting the logistic regression analysis is more apt and therefore, such an analysis is carried out (Table 5).Next to educational status, current age of the respondents appear to be the major deciding factor whether the respondents got enrolling themselves for health insurance or instance, compared to those younger at age (15-29 years), respondents who ever at their most prime working ages (30 -44 years) have shown greater tendency to take a health insurance s result is also turn out as highly significant (p Another interesting point noted based on the logistic regression analysis is that the odds of enrolling for health insurance are found to be higher and significant at a moderate level (OR = 1.05) among the females as compared to their male y, though the elderly who reside in urban areas as well as in nuclear families and working in jobs related to foundry industry have shown higher odds of enrolling themselves for health insurance than their counterparts, the results did not turn out to be statistically significant.Sangamithra 16 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 Table 5: Logistic Regression Results on Respondents’ Enrolment of Health Insurance Explanatory Variables of other, similarly placed countries, they are also unevenly distributed across the population and across states.

Health outcomes are especially poor for individuals and households at the lower end of the socio - economic s are also extremely vulnerable to financial risks from illness, as indicated by high levels of out-of-pocket spending, and this vulnerability appears to be increasing o ver y, by most accounts, satisfaction with publicly-provided health care service is there is hope that this may change as the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) matures, and with the implementation of the National Urban Health Mission (NUHM), we do not have enough evidence to support this as private sector has its own problems and is generally poorly regulated and of variable quality, ranging from high-end institutions to unqualified providers.These outcomes are reflected in India’s slow progress towards achieving several of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) to which it is any assessment of progress towards the MDGs, India performs relatively well on the poverty reduction and education –related goals, but not as well on goals related to health (Bibek Debroy et ational Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 17 It has been clearly recognized that health insurance is one way of providing protection to poor households against the risk of health spending leading to r, most efforts to provide health insurance in the past have faced difficulties in both design and poor are unable or unwilling to take up health insurance because of its cost, or lack of perceived findings clearly establish the fact that educational status of the respondents plays a vital role in respondents enrolling for health insurance.Greater awareness about the importance of health insurance and the demand for the health insurance would be higher among educated respondents, especially among those who go beyond secondary school and above and thereby, large number of such persons enroll themselves for health insurance.Next to educational status, current age of the respondents appear to be the major deciding factor whether the respondents got enrolling themselves for health insurance or is also conspicuous to note that respondents whose family monthly income is better have higher likelihood of enrolling themselves for health insurance as compared to those who belong to famil ies in which monthly income is ing for health insurance are found to be higher and significant at a moderate level among the females as compared to their male interesting fact is, when the researcher after explaining the benefits of health insurance schemes to the respondents, a majority of them (80 per cent) reported that they are willing to join in health insurance of the workers reported that they are not covered by any health insurance plans or medical claim pac kages.

Workers must pay most of their medical bills, though they reported that their employees will pay medical cost in the event that injuries are sustained as a result of an accident in the work nces Economic and Political Weekly, 35 (40):3607– P (1998), “Rethinking Health Care System: Private Health Care Provision in India, Harvard University, School of public Health.(1999), “Public-Private Partnerships in Health Sector: Issues and Prospects”.99-05- 06; Indian Institute of Management, Debroy and Ajoy Mahal (2010), “India Health Report 2010”, BS Books, New (2007), ‘Willingness to pay for health insurance among rural and poor persons: Field evidence from seven micro health insurance units in India’, Health Policy, 82 (1): 12– Mathauer and Jean-Olivier Schmidt and Maurice Wenyaa (2008), “Extending Social Health Insurance to the Informal Sector in Kenya.An Assessment of Factors Affecting Demand”, International Journal of Health Planning and Management Internatio nal Journal of Health Plan Management, 23: 51-68.(1998), ‘Willingness to pay for rural health insurance through community participation in India’, International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 13(1): 47– ithra 18 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, , Moneer Alam and Indrani Gupta (2000), “Health Insurance in India”, Prognosis and Prospects, Economic and Political Weekly, January 22, pp.

(2010), “Social Security Health Insurance for the Informal Sector in Nicaragua: A Randomized Evaluation”, Health (2009), “Marketing of Healthcare Services”, Excel Books, New Delhi.(1997), ``Health Care Costs, Wages and Aging'', Unpublished Paper (Federal Reserve Board of Governors, Washington, DC).Journal of Health Management, 3(2): 283–308.(1992), “Household Survey of Medical Care”.(2008), ‘Health insurance Schemes in India: An Economic analysis of Demand Management under Risk Pooling and Adverse Selection’, An unpublished thesis submitted to Mangalore University through ISEC, Development Report (1993), Investing In Health, The World Bank, Washington D.

International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 19 Awareness of Medicinal Plants in Tamil Nadu among the Post Graduate Teachers of Biology in Tiruchirappalli District S.Amutha Abstract: Though we live in era of grey revolution, the formost important thing is our maintain health one must consciously aware of their health.All the time no one can depend on consuming daily food itself we can maintain our this juncture a study of etanobotany (study of medicinal plants) is inevitable for it is the responsibility of the botany teachers to take the gospel of etanobotany in different spheres to the students throughout the the importance of biological science is realized, the method of teaching the same is crude in most of the schools (Amutha, 2010).Botanic Gardens Conservation International has warned that 600 medicinal plants around the world are at risk of extinction due to defo restation medicinal plants find application in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, agricultural and food ent parts of several medicinal plants are used to cure specific ailments from ancient indigenous system of medicine namely ayurvedic, siddha, and unani have been in existence for several are many interesting and sometimes astonishing things to learn about medicinal plants.

Spreading and preserving the knowledge on medicinal plants an d their uses are important for human present study undertook a piece of research which can throw a light on the teachers of botany to understand their level of awareness towards medicinal research in any field must be inclined to contribute to the upliftment of the society in different that way, the present study aims at creating awareness about medicinal plants by the botany words: grey revolution, health, medicine, etanobotany,conservation, deforestation, pharmaceutical, Cosmetic, agricultural , food industry, ailments, indigenous Introduction WHO (World Health Organisation) defined “a medicinal plant is any plant in which one (or) more of its parts contains substance that can be used for therapeutic purpose (or) which is a precursor for synthesis of useful drugs”.Herbal medicine plays a vital role in of us are under stress which affects the body in many ed air we breathe leads to lung problem inturn it leads to mental way of maintaining our health is to keep the environment clean and grow more herbs and natural medicinal plants (Stelling, Keith, 1992).Objectives of the study The present study is committed to accomplish the following objectives: 1.To ascertain the level of awareness on medicinal plants by the post graduate Teachers of Biology at Tiruchirappalli Research Questions plants? Method and Procedure investigator after conceptualizing different medicinal plants which are very much available in Tamil Nadu developed a Medicinal plants Awareness Questionnaire (MPAQ) consisting of 50 medicinal plants which elicit the vernacular name, family name , usage of the plant parts and its medicinal use with ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ tool has been given to the experts in the field of taxonomy for obtaining their on their opinion 22 plants were discarded because it is available only in the foreign countries.Thus remaining fifty plants were retained in the questionnaire was administered by the investigator with 70 post graduate botany teachers using simple random on the data collected through the questionnaire, their responses are tabulated, analysed and interpreted as follows Table 1 Medicinal Plants Awareness Questionnaire (MPAQ) for Male teachers S.

no International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 25 It is understood from the above table that the botany teachers have less knowledge towards higher education it is mandatory for anyone to identify the plants by its the botany teachers have thorough knowledge in taxonomy they cannot be in a position to teach taxonomy to their students, simultaneously students also have less knowledge in plants present in the tool are commonly available in Tamil like Solanum nigrum, Alpina speciosa, Commilina benghalensis, Atropa belladonna, Apium graveolens, Acacia pennata, Acacia catechu are not at all known by the male teachers.Female teachers does not know the following plants Ailanthus excels ,Agave Americana, Acacia catechu, Apium graveolens, Asteracanth a longifollia, Atropa belladonna, Commilina benghalensis, Alpina speciosa, Coleus aromaticus and Solanum cepa are used as food in our daily vera are used as food, cosmetics is even present in their garden but still the teachers are not able to connect the subject knowledge in their daily on the findings of the present study the following recommendations were made.Recommendations Knowledge about medicinal plants and usage should be given right from secondary schooling.General awareness should be given to the teachers as well as the students about medicinal plants.

Attitude should be developed to students as well as teachers towards medicinal plants.Central institute for medicinal & aromatic plants (CIMAP) should give carrier guidance and educational guidance about medicinal plants through institutions.Informal training should be given to people to use commonly available medicinal plants in their daily routine.The world health organization (WHO) estimates that 80 percent of the world’s population use herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health knowledge of traditional plant use is a valuable tool for developing awareness in any human far as the subject botany is concerned it is totally related to our daily the teachers should take cognizance of learning taxonomy and the same can be imparted to their y some of the p lants are extinct.Every teacher must take initiatives to protect the rare species of plants and impart the values of plants to the student a teacher of botany one can easily motivate people by increasing the positive attitudes towards the growth of flora and by this way they can contribute to the nces through e-Content with a Metacognitive Instructional Design, Doctoral Thesis s ubmitted to Bharathidasan University, 26 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.

Poor performance in science among African students: An alternative explanation to the African WorIdview l of Research in Science Teaching, 36 (3), ational Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 27 The Key Success Factors and Profitability: A Case Study on Micro Small and Medium Enterprises M.Omnamasivayya Abstract: The MSME sector in India contributes almost half of India’s GDP and is home to a swing of business e their significance, MSMEs fail within the first few months of ments around the globe are increasingly promoting and supporting MSME growth as part of thei r overall national development KSF of MSMEs are background and access to resources of the entrepreneur, strategic decisions taken by the firm, management, know-how, products and services, the way of doing business, cooperation, resources, finance, external environment, customer service, the past experiences of the study is attempted to test the hypothesis that there is no significant co-relation between the availability and use of financial resources and profitability (ROI) of t he MSMEs.Entrepreneurs/ Owners of MSMEs perceive that More Ads, Good Salaries to employees, CRM, Exploitation of Employees, Use of Technology and K.of the MSMEs performance/ profitability and inferred that there is a significant co-relation between the availability and use of financial resources and profitability (ROI) of the Micro Small and Medium r, there is a significant difference that has been found in the influences of such independent variables on the dependent independent factors via, close supervision on employees, creative ideas and thoughts, creating very good ambience and improving quality of the product have been found no significance on organizational performance in the uction The development of Micro Small and Medi um Enterprise Sector leads to greater utilization of local raw materials, employment generation, encouragement of rural development, development of entrepreneurship, mobilization of local savings, linkages with bigger industries, provision of regional balance by spreading investments more evenly, provision of avenue for self -employment and provision of opportunity for training managers and semi -skilled workers.

Small and medium scale enterprises contribute over 50 per cent of the employment opportunities and40per cent of GDP in 81per cent of all employment in Japan is in SMEs where the average enterprise employs nine staff as opposed to four in the China, SMEs are accounted for about 60per cent of i ndustrial output and employ about 75per cent of the workforce.Masters essay writing service order essay term paper thesis nbsp Despite their significance, recent studies show that 60per cent of the SMEs fail within the first few months of s also show that it is hard for the SMEs to access finances from the financial institutions since they lack proper financial records as a requirement.Governments around the globe are increasingly promoting and supporting MSME growth as part of their overall national development strategy Page 12Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine,Group (AGEING), Epidemiology Group: Room 4:013 Polwarth Building,There were 250,104 (46%) stroke patients not receiving any antithromboticthe American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) Get with ments around the globe are increasingly promoting and supporting MSME growth as part of their overall national development strategy.They have created majority of new jobs in OECD countries since the 1970s and their collective contributions to respective GDPs are about 30per cent in Australia and New Zealand, 51per cent in the UK and USA, 57per cent in Canada and Japan, and 76per cent in terms of entrepreneurial activity, MSMEs often occupy fragmented or niche markets which large firms either cannot economically enter or are reluctant to enter (C.

The entrepreneurial dimensions via, Innovativeness, risk taking, and pro-activeness competitive aggressiveness and autonomy M.

Omnamasivayya 28 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 of MSMEs entrepreneurs can also influence the development of such enterprises besides several other key factors .2, July 2013 of MSMEs entrepreneurs can also influence the development of such enterprises besides several other key factors.E’s The MSME sector in India contributes almost half of India’s GDP and is home to a swing of business l Studies have been conducted on the Key Success factors of MSMEs during the last ten years; there is still not much of a common body of well-founded knowledge about the er, researchers have been unable to achieve a consensus regarding the factors leading to firm growth because Most of the research work in this area fails to provide convincing evidence of the determinants of small firm growth as a basis for informing policy ts to build models for predicting the future growth of the firm have not been particularly successful.Moreover, the status of being a growth firm may be rather are three key influences on the growth rate of MSMEs; they are the background and access to resources of the entrepreneur; the firm itself; and the strategic decisions taken by the firm once it is can carve out value-adding niches for themselves and play an important role at a time when global corporations revisit their established supply and sourcing patterns as a response to the changed business climate and looking at supply chain areas and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) solutions as the key factors for their survival and success (Parijat Upadhyay and Pranab K Dan 2009).

The main factors that can influence the sustainability and success of MSMEs in underdeveloped countries like India and Bangladesh are features of MSMEs, management, know-how, products and services, the way of doing business and cooperation, resources, finance, and external environment (Mathew Philip 2010).Further, t he Key Success Factors of MSMEs are customer service, know-how of the business and the past experiences of the manager.Similarly the most failure factors are lack of access to financial capital, inappropriate government structure and poor infrastructure as well as corruption (Syed Wajahat Hussain Naqvi 2011).Review of Literature and respond appropriately to market intelligence in order to survive given evidence of their financial, technical and other s show that the development of market orientation in this sector rests more on the attitude of owners/ specifically, market orientation leads to superior performance under ceaseless competitive conditions and better accounting practices have also been give n due consideration to ensure profitability.(2010) have opined that internationalization of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) is an important factor of their profitability and study has showed a significant relationsh ip between internationalization and liberalization and digitization are encouraging large corporations and the SMEs to operate beyond their national borders and compete with each other in foreign countries and new Issues related to globalization, internationalization and liberalization have received a great deal of attention in the recent research.

(2010) have studied the relationship between working capital management and ational Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 29 A sample of 88 American firms listed on New York Stock Exchange for a period of 3 years from 2005 to 2007 was selected and have analyzed the relationship between the cash conversion cycle and profitability, measured through gross operating profit.Further, they have mentioned that managers can create profits for their companies by handling correctly cash conversion cycle and accounts and Fatima (2011) have investigated the relationship between working capital efficiency and profitability on the 53 Jordanian manufacturing firms listed in Amman Exchange Market for the period (2000-2006).There has been a negative significant relationship between profitability and the average receivable collection period, average conversion inventory period and average p ayment period, and also the cash conversion study has also revealed a positive significance between the size of the firm, growth of sales and current ratio and y, financial leverage correlated negatively with profitability.Thus, firms have to manage its working capital efficiently to achieve the optimal and Tomola (2008) have empirically investigated the impact of bank loans, age, and the size of business on the profitability of small and medium enterpri ses in Nigeria and found that there has been a significant positive relationship between profitability and the size of business, author has recommended relaxing the restrictive regulations and operations of commercial banks which discourage borrowing for Maseko and Onias Manyani (2011) has emphasized the development of sound accounting systems in MSMEs in order to improve financial management in these entities and has revealed that the majority of SMEs do not keep complete accountin g records because of lack of accounting knowledge and as a result there is inefficient use of accounting information in financial performance study has recommended that national regulators must develop specific accounting guidelines, mandatory record keeping for MSMEs and develop accounting training programmes for entrepreneurs in small businesses.

Danie Schutte and Pieter Buys (2011) have opined that there has been a little evidence on disclosure practices of SMEs and their monitoring a study has suggested that the IFRS for SMEs could become the preferred accounting framework for SMEs in South en Padachi (2012) has opined that a large number of business failures have been attributed to inability of financial managers to plan and control properly the current assets and the current liabilities of MSMEs in ial management skills and strategies of small business are very different from those of large ones.They must be learnt and implement ed in order to get success in the business by entrepreneur managers.Abdulkadir Madawaki (2012) has focused on the adoption process of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on a developing economy, with particular reference to has further added that proper accounting practices as per IFSMS are necessary to attract foreign direct investment, reduction of the cost of doing business, and cross border implementing IFRS, Nigeria would face challenges including the development of a legal and regulatory framework, awareness campaign, and training of personnel and has recommended strengthening education and training, establishment of an independent body to monitor and enforce accounting and auditing standards and the sivayya 30 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, for the Study The development of Micro Small and Medium Enterprise Sector is inevitable in underdeveloped countries like India and leads to greater utilization of local raw materials, employment generation, and encouragement of rural development, development o f entrepreneurship, mobilization of local savings, self-employment and many contribution for national economy is also studies show that 60per cent of the SMEs fail within the first few months of s also sho w that it is hard for the SMEs to access finances from the financial institutions since they lack proper financial records as a accounting system has its clear impact on the performance, profitability of enterprises.In this context, there is a need to discover the most prominent or key success factors for the development of MSMEs in terms of more profitability (ROI) and high quality global financial reporting standards aimed at eliminating the incomparability factor while increasing th e transparency of financial statements and heightening the other side, in most of the countries respective authorities have given relaxation for MSMEs from mandatory requirements of this scenario, the much needed in-depth study on the above issues is attracted the attention of , an attempt is made to study the K.F’s on the performance/ profitability of MSMEs, ives of the Study This research has certain objectives via, to review the existing literature on MSME Sector, to understand the importance of the sector in the development of national economy, creation of self employment, entrepreneurship and so on, to discover the factors (KSF) which can be more useful to enhance profitability and to suggest better remedies to come out from the present common problems of MSMEs and attain ology In Visakhapatnam, The total number of Micro and Small Scale enterprises (Registered at DIC) are 17,560 which includes 7,786 engineering Units followed by 3,016 Agro based industries, 1524 cotton textiles, 1,106 Electronic Units and rest of them belong to others categories.

They are providing employment to as many as 1,73,847 people are more number of unregistered Mi cro and Small enterprises (estimated to be above 30,000 manufacturing and 90,000 service sector enterprises) that provide lively hood to more number of people (above 7,00,000 directly and indirectly) in the city (BN Entrepreneurship Research & Development Society, Visakhapatnam estimates).The total Number of Registered Medium and Large Units are about 72, providing employment to 46,321 (Male -40,012, Female-6,309) people ( ).The data for this study has been collected from both primar y and secondary sources of data.A pilot study was conducted initially with 30 questionnaires.After few alteration, pre structured questionnaire has been prepared and used to collect responses from 200 sample 192 questionnaires have been identified to be proper after deducted eight of them semi filled and used in the ational Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.

2, July 2013 31 Table 1: Sample of Enterprises Selected for the Study No.of Enterprises Source: Field Study Out of the sample, the proportion of service enterprises is more (about 67.19 per cent) and rest of enterprises in the sample is under Medium category (about Micro and Small enterprises category, about 86.36 per cent are manufacturing enterprises, followed by service enterprises (about 57.In the medium enterprises category the proportion of services is more (about 42.

86 per cent), followed by manufacturing category (about esis profitability (ROI) of the Micro Small and Medium Enterprises Ho2- Entrepreneurs/ Owner of MSMEs perceive that More Ads, Good Salaries to employees, CRM, Exploitation of Employees, Use of Technology and K.of MSMEs profitability MSMEs profitability profitability profitability Ho2e- Entrepreneurs/ Owner of MSMEs perceive Technology (Information & Computerized Accounting System) is a K.of profitability Ho2f- Entrepreneurs/ Owner of MSMEs perceive ‘Knowledge Management’ is a K.Study Analysis Three fourth of enterprises, selected for study were established 5 years ago, rest of them representing about 25 per cent are recent establishments with less than 5 years of experience.50 per cent of enterprises are sole trading establishments, followed by partnership firms (about 30 per cent) and others M.

Omnamasivayya 32 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, entrepreneurs representing 85 per cent are below 55 90 per cent of entrepreneurs are Hindu’s.Others constitute very less proportion via, Christians’ (about 7.5 Per cent), Muslim’s and others (about 5 per cent).5 per cent of entrepreneurs are graduates, followed by the entrepreneurs with below SSC qualification (about 35 per cent), post graduates and Technical certificate holders (about 15 per cent each).One third of them are school dropouts who have studied below secondary entrepreneurs with lower qualifications are a lso highly successful in managing their motivating factors for starting enterprises have been obtained, as many as 42 per cent of the entrepreneurs are motivated by their family members.

About 18 per cent of the entrepreneurs have been motivated by their friends and relatives.54 per cent) are obtained credit from commercial banks followed by money lenders (about 21.31 per cent), financial institutions (about 18.50 per cent of entrepreneurs have started with their own capital followed by banks (about profitability of the enterprises has been obtained.84 per cent of the enterprises profitability has been increasing.

50 per cent of the enterprises the profitability has been one fourth of the enterprises profitability has been stable.66 per cent have taken less than two years to earn profits after commencement of the business and over 26.67 per cent have taken three years to earn profits after commencement of business.27 per cent have opined high prices of raw material are the main problem in obtaining raw material followed by scarcity (about 15.

66 per cent of the entrepreneurs haven’t faced any raw material problems.

Most of the entrepreneurs have marketing prob lem also (about 97 per cent).17 per cent have the problem of absenteeism followed by skill shortage (about 22.50 per cent), employee turnover (about 22.

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50 per cent) and low productivity (about 6.In finance, the main problems are: high interest rates (about 32.

50 per cent), meager assistance from banks and financial institutions (about and financial institutions and profitability (ROI) has been calculated (Table 2) 13 Jun 2018 - Get an ecology lab report 13200 words formatting   its consumers, who are wail pacified with the ripe predestined can interrogate us to   to purchase a ecology laboratory report Business ASA British Writing newcomer   an ecology laboratory report Harvard single spaced 46 pages / 12650 paragraph  .50 per cent), meager assistance from banks and financial institutions (about and financial institutions and profitability (ROI) has been calculated (Table 2).

The correlation between loans taken from financial institutions, commercial banks by MSMEs and their profitability (ROI) has been -525,-380 negative correlation is significant at 0.So, it is inferred that there is a significant negative correlation between the use of loans from commercial banks and financial institutions and ROI of n Own funds and ROI, the correlation is 0 Need to get ecology lab report 9 days 21725 words cbe american   value research indication academic 7 pages / 1925 subject cbe reward We Will Always Be   3 noontide average asa 2 Page (s)/550 Words 3 Page (s)/825 Words 4 Page   Words 44 Page (s)/12100 Words 45 Page (s)/75 Words 46 Page (s)/12650 Words  .So, it is inferred that there is a significant negative correlation between the use of loans from commercial banks and financial institutions and ROI of n Own funds and ROI, the correlation is 0.There is a significant co-relation between the availability and use of financial resources and profitability (ROI) of the Micro Small and Medium Key Success Factors and Profitability: A Case Study on Micro Small and Medium Enterprises International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol Need to get ecology lab report 9 days 21725 words cbe american   value research indication academic 7 pages / 1925 subject cbe reward We Will Always Be   3 noontide average asa 2 Page (s)/550 Words 3 Page (s)/825 Words 4 Page   Words 44 Page (s)/12100 Words 45 Page (s)/75 Words 46 Page (s)/12650 Words  .There is a significant co-relation between the availability and use of financial resources and profitability (ROI) of the Micro Small and Medium Key Success Factors and Profitability: A Case Study on Micro Small and Medium Enterprises International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 33 Table 2: Correlation between Financial Resources and Profitability Own funds International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol cracksfreesoftware.com/homework/best-websites-to-buy-a-custom-english-language-homework-chicago-american-double-spaced-without-plagiarism.

2, July 2013 33 Table 2: Correlation between Financial Resources and Profitability Own funds International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.

2, July 2013 35 The t- values and their respective significant levels at 0.001 levels are presented in the independent factors via, by giving more advertisements, by very good customer relationship mgt, by giving more salaries to employees, by extracting m ore work from employees, by increasing more sales, by reducing expenses, creative ideas and thoughts, by using new technology, by getting benefits, more support from Govt., by adopting proper knowledge management have been found to be significant at either 0.Few independent factors via, with close supervision on employees, creative ideas and thoughts, by creating very good ambience and improving quality of the product have been found no significance on organizational performance in the sion Most of the owners have believed that the need for such system is not crucial to follow up their business development and having automated accounting system would require increasing the number of employed staff and so increasing the current expenses as well as the requirements needed to build the suitable infrastructure for this of MSMEs owners have considered that owning automated accounting systems as luxury need, quantity of data is worthless to have automated accounti ng of the small enterprises have neither computers nor technical staff to run the computerized accounting system.Very few are using simple software to manage part of their accounts specially the wages of their owners did not show their attempt to use such systems because they believe that working such systems requires from them to recruit people to work with them that in turn increase their current expenses and don’t believe that how these systems would improve their competitiveness and ies: The Case of Nigeria, International Journal of Business and Management l of Business and Economics, Vol-1(10), -Maria Pascu and Andreea vasiliu (2011), International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium sized Entities- A New challenge for the European Union, CES Working Papers III, (1) ents against the IFRS Requirements, Journal of Accounting and Taxation mance Measures: Empirical Evidence in Spanish SME’s, The International Journal of Digital Accounting Research sivayya 36 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.

(2010), The Necessities of Paperless Accounting System, American Journal of Scientific Research, Vol-10, Issue 7, (2012), The Obstacles of Adopting Paperless Accounting Systems in S MEs, European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, / , retrieved on 18-01-2013.(2007) have demonstrated that informal SMEs have a higher profitability than formal further shows that ICTs/ Mobile-commerce are productive input factors and their use increases labor productivity for informal as well as formal szter Fekete (2012), Is SMEs accounting influenced by taxation? Some empirical evidence from Romania, African Journal of Business Management Vol.(2007), ICT Usage and Its Impact on Profitability of SMEs in 13 African Countries, R.A, The MIT Press, Volume 4, Number 1, Pp-87– ed Abdulai Mahmoud (2011), Market Orientation and Business Performance among SMEs in Ghana, International Business Research, Vol.Lijuan Zhou (2010), The Research on Issue and Countermeasures of Accounting Information of SMES, International Journal of Business and Management, en Padachi (2012), Ignore Formal AccountingSystems? - Entity Concept Explanation” International Conference on Applied and Management Sciences (IAMS'2012) June 16-17, 2012, Bangkok Nelson Maseko and Onias Manyani (2011), Accounting practices of SMEs in Zimbabwe: An investigative study of record keeping for performance measurement: A case study of Bindura,Journal of Accounting and Taxation an Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) 2006, Enhancing the Financial Accounting and Reporting Standard-setting Process for Private Companies, /downloads/ITC private company financial .

(retrieved on Jan 18, 2013) Motivation, International Journal of Organizational Behavior, Volume 12, No.Grace Tola Olutunla and Tomola Marshal Obamuyi (2008), An Empirical Analysis of Factors Associated with The Profitability of Small and Medium - Enterprises in Nigeria, African Journal of Business Management la Taiwo (2012), Impact of Small and Medium Enterprises on Economic Growth and Development, American Journal of Business and Management, Vol.(2010), Internationalization and Performance: Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia, International Journal of Business and Management, Key Success Factors and Profitability: A Case Study on Micro Small and Medium Enterprises International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 37 H Gin Chong (2008), Measuring performance of small-and-medium sized enterprises: the grounded theory approach, journal of Business and Public Affairs, Volume 2, Issue 1, Suhail Hayajneh and Fatima Lahcen Ait Yassine (2011),The Impact of Working Capital Efficiency on Profitability – an Empirical Analysis on Jordanian Manufacturing Firms, International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, vol-1, Issue-66,Pp-67-76.Mathew Philip (2010), Factors Affecting Business Success of Small & Medium Enterprises (SME’s),APJRBM Volume 1, Issue 2 (November, 2010), Sri Krishna International Research & Educational Consortium, retrieved on 02/03/ t Upadhyay and Pranab K Dan (2009), ERP in Indian SME’s: A Post Implementation Study of the Underlying Critical Success Factors, International Journal of Management Innovation System, rial Profile of Visakhapatnam, Br -MSME Development Institute, Visakhapatnam, Ministry of MSME, .

Environmental Concern of Indian Paper Industry V.Darling Selvi Abstract: The demand for paper and board in India will certainly continue to grow as the country's economy develops over the coming Indian Paper Industry accounts for about 1.6% of the world production of paper and sector provides employment to about 3.In a world where the emphasis is clearly shifting to environment-friendly products and production systems, the large untapped potential of the handmade paper industry cannot be a developing country like India, faced with increasing shortages of natural raw materials, energy sources and capital, the development of this industry offers considerable potential to meet development objectives and respond to demand for both domestic and export de paper production uses exclusively non-forest raw materials; it is particularly well suited to internal recycling; and it is not centralized in large scale is among the most environmentally compliant paper manufacturers in the world.The company makes paper using as little wood as possible to save forest and primarily uses sugarcane waste namely Bagasse, a renewable raw material which consumes less chemical for pulping and bleaching, resulting minimum impact on the paper throws light on the scope of the paper industry in general and the newsprint sector in particular statistically and highlights the efforts taken by the TNPL in exploring the possibilities of Sustainable Environmental Protection by its innovative production techniques and the profitability position of the Words: Paper industry, handmade paper, Pulp, waste paper, trend, bagasse, fibre, Financial Indicators, uction The demand for paper and board in India will certainly continue to grow as the country's economy develops over the coming decades.

The Indian Paper Industry accounts for about 1.6% of the world production of paper and sector provides employment to about 3.Most of the paper mills are in existence for a long time and hence present technologies fall in a wide spectrum ranging from oldest to the most mills use a variety of raw material , bamboo, recycled fibre, bagasse, wheat straw, rice husk, and so imately 35% are based on chemical pulp, 44% on recycled fibre and 21% on agro geographical spread of the industry as well as market is mainly responsible for regional balance of production and consumption.India is the fastest growing market for paper globally and it presents an exciting scenario; paper consumption is poised for a big leap forward in sync with the economic growth and is estimated to touch futuristic view is that growth in paper consumption would be in multiples of GDP and hence an increase in consumption by one kg per capita would lead to an increase in demand of 1 million de paper units ‘are mainly constrained only by limited a world where the emphasis is clearly shifting to environment-friendly products and production systems, the large untapped potential of the handmade paper industry cannot be ignored.For a developing country like Ind ia, faced Environmental Concern of Indian Paper Industry International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.

2, July 2013 39 with increasing shortages of natural raw materials, energy sources and capital, the development of this industry offers considerable potential to meet development objectives and respond to demand for both domestic and export de pa per units are defined essentially by the fact that their operations are carried out pure cellulosic (or raw) materials to be pulped, mechanical rather than chemical pulping methods would be used.In fact, the existing handmade paper industry relies wholly on secondary is no theoretical limit to the size of handmade paper units, though in India, they are often limited in practice to a production capacity of 300 tonnes per handmade paper industry uses exclusively non-forest raw present, it uses only cellulose-rich materials such as cotton rags, waste paper and waste Indian paper and board industry offers many opportunities for the innovative use of limited resources.For a developing country li ke India, faced with increasing shortages of raw, materials, energy sources and capital, the development of the handmade paper industry offers considerable potential to meet the increasing demand for paper products in an environment- friendly de paper production uses exclusively non-forest raw materials; it is particularly well suited to internal recycling; and it is not centralized in large scale ology of the Study The study based on secondary data which is collected from the an nual reports of TNPL for various years and from the latest report of press industry of demand, supply and the growth rate of press industry were indicated with the help of percentage analysis.Thrust has been given to the financial indicators and the performance of ial Indicators have been analysed with the help of Return on Net Worth, Value per share, EPS, Dividend and Debt to r sales and profit have been considered to analyse the performance of for Indian Paper Industry Paper industry has large significance to man.The industry has assumed greater importance in India with the growth of is required for books, magazines, periodicals, news -papers, writing and for various other fact, paper is indispensable to man in the present day is made from a variety of materials like rags, cereal strains, jute, hemp, bamboo, bagasse, bhaber grass, sabai grass, esparto grass and wood tly, of all the raw materials w ood pulp and bamboo predominate.

The increasing demand for paper brings with it new challenges of economies of scale, efficient usage of resources, need to develop and expand sustainable use of fibre, and value chain management, e the fact that the Indian Paper Industry holds its importance to the national economy, unfortunately it stands Indian paper and paperboards industry has potential and also capabilities to service the growing demand in domestic and international market and also to create huge employment avenues in the rural -India through agro/production, forestry and at mills, provided the competitiveness of the value chain is encouraged by the total output of Indian paper industry is about 7.4 MT, with a turnover of about Rs 160 billion.It contributes about Rs 25 billion to the state and central exchequers by way of various duties and is a capital -intensive, energy-intensive and pollution emitting y, there are two types of paper products: paper and paper boards, and and paperboard can further be subdivided into industrial grade (wrapping and packaging, specialty, kraft etc.) and cultural (writing and printing) paper.The Indian paper industry can be divided into four categories: V.

Darling Selvi i) Large-scale (integrated) units - 50,000 tons and up per year; ii) Medium-scale units - 10,000 to 50,000 tons per year; iii) Small-scale agro-based units - up to, 10,000 tons per year; iv) Handmade paper units - 60 to 300 tons per 1: Supply and Demand Scenario of Paper of India Category Source: Project report on Global Competitiveness of the Indian Paper Industry Total demand growth in 2000 to 2015 is expected to be 6.Supply is estimated to increase by about 6 million tons during the same period depends on investments.Standard facility requirements wbdg The supply an d demand projection up to 2015-16 are 10 million tons and 13 million tons respectively, leading to a shortfall of 3 million growth rate of writing and printing varieties is expected to be 4-6percent per annum, while that of industrial paper is estimated to be 12 higher growth rate of industrial paper is due to the substitution of conventional packaging of products by paper and paper board Preservation of protein clefts in comparative models BMC Structural higher growth rate of industrial paper is due to the substitution of conventional packaging of products by paper and paper board.Imports of paper and paper products were growing over the nmental Concern of Indian Paper Industry International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.

2, July 2013 41 Table 2: Pulp/waste paper Supply/Demand scenario Category Source: Project report on Global Competitiveness of the Indian Paper Industry The demand forecast for the period from 2000 to 2015 indicates that there is a potential demand for Mechanical pulp to the tune of 311 thousand tons, BSKP 214 thousand tons, BHKP 1193 thousand tons and Non wood pulp 1214 thousand tons and the demand for all these items are constantly estimated to increase even in the year 2020 ng sector The printing sector is relatively advanced with modern printing machinery and well -trained and experienced are some 120 000 printers in Ind ia .

There are some 120 000 printers in Ind ia.Major printer concentrations are found in large and its surroundings account for some 40 % of the total printing is another major printing area, and smaller concentrations are found in Chennai and g Selvi machinery is modern compared to many other industry segments in India.The prevailing printing method is 70-80 % of offset printing machines are sheet-fed, and 20-30% reel Indian printers usually purchase new printing machines from international largest demand is for printing of books (24 %), followed by newspapers and periodicals (23 %) and packaging (21 %).Based on discussions with the printers, Indian consumers are increasingly looking for better designed printed products and displays, colourful newspapers, state of the art advertising material and good quality packaging.The largest newspapers are printed in several major cities and distributed to the surrounding areas with limited circulation beyond the city areas or states, where they have been main limitations to wider geographical coverage are the poor transport conditions and the short time span of uently, the power of regional newspapers edited in local languages is well established, and therefore the largest newspapers print regional editions to reach local ghts of Indian Newsprint Industry The total number of registered newspapers, as on 31st March, 2011: 82,222 The number of new newspapers registered during 2010-11: 4,853 Percentage of growth of total registered publications over the previous year: 6.

25 % The largest number of newspapers & periodicals registered in any Indian language (Hindi): 32,793 11,478 The state with the second largest number of registered newspapers (Delhi): 10,606 The number of newspapers that submitted Annual Statements: 14,508 The total circulation of newspapers : 32,92,04,841 The largest number of newspapers & periodicals that submitted Annual Statements in any Indian language(Hindi): 7,910 language(English) : 1,406 The second largest circulated Daily: The Hindu, English, Chennai : 14,82,658 The third largest circulated Daily: Ananda Bazar Patrika, Bengali, Kolkata : 12,08,682 The largest circulated multi-edition Daily: The Times of India, English (12 editions):37,46,929 The second largest circulated multi-edition Daily: Eenadu, Telugu (19 editions):29,55,300 The largest circulated periodical: The Hindu Weekly, English, Chennai : 13,48,160 6.Tamil Nadu Paper Limited (TNPL) TNPL is among the most environmentally compliant paper manufacturers in the company makes paper using as little wood as possible to save forest and primarily uses sugarcane waste namely Bagasse, a renewable raw material which consumes less chemical for pulping and bleaching, resulting minimum impact on the has the distinction of being the largest Bagasse based paper mill in the World.Bagasse is used as a fuel in sugar mills and it is not freely available for purchase as a Environmental Concern of Indian Paper Industry International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.However, large quantities of Bagasse are required for paper source Bagasse uninterruptedly, TNPL developed an innovative unique barter model for getting Bagasse from sugar mills in exchange of is considered as a best example for inter-industry co-generation and public – private partnership for over 25 years.At present, TNPL consumes 1 million tonnes of depithed Bagasse every year by establishing a long term tie up arrangement with eight sugar ption of 1 lakh tones of Bagasse avoids cutting of trees in 30,000 acres of land every year.

1 Eco – Friendly measures taken by TNPL TNPL, a minimum impact mill on the environment front: The implementation of the Mill Development Plan, Mill Expansion Plan and water conservation measures has enabled TNPL to reduce the water ing a reduction of 49 percent in fresh water consumption and a reduction of 52 percent in the treated effluent discharge are quite significant and this has been achieved with huge investment keeping the environment concerns in the forefront.The used mill water is treated thoroughly in a high efficiency waste treatment plant to meet the standards prescribed by treated waste water is used for irrigating 1665 acres of once barren lands adjacent to the irrigation is carried out through a scheme conceived as TNPL Effluent Water Lift Irrigation Scheme (TEWLIS) mooted in 1987 with over 460 beneficiary lands which were once dry and parched are now lush green and a perennial source of revenue to the land addition, about 625 acres of land are irrigated with the treated waste water to grow Eucalyptus trees, out of which, 165 acres are covered under drip irrigation system.Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) – Carbon Trading: TNPL has set up a Bio-Methanation plant, generating biogas from a portion of the waste water generated in the is an innovative project for a paper industry drawing accolades from various environmental care bio-gas generated is used in Lime Kiln in replacement of furnace addition, this project was the first to be regist ered from paper industry world over under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and 1,61,956 Certified Emission Reductions (CER) are issued so far and generated revenue of r 95,000 CERs generated from the above project is under an aim to reach 100,000 acres by the year 2012-13, TNPL aggressively undertakes Farm Forestry Schemes in confluence with the farmers as it helps to improve their demand for wood is ever increasing .To meet the growing raw material demand and to sub-serve 1988 National Forest Policy Guidelines of the Government of India, TNPL involved itself for the first time in pulpwood plantation during the year 2004 -05.The plantation program was divided into two distinctive schemes, namely, Farm Forestry and Captive Forestry: This is basically about promoting tree plantation in private lands and produce is taken back by this scheme, TNPL will supply seedlings to the farmers at subsidized rates and the produce is supplied to TNPL through a buy-back arrangement based on the guaranteed price or the then prevailing market rates whichever is benefits farmers to a great extent as it helps them to improve their livelihood and obviously it enjoys great patronage from g Selvi Captive Plantation: The surplus lands belonging to individuals and institutions are utilized by TNPL on a lease arrangement and revenue from the produce is shared on a pre -fixed the land owners prefer lease arrangement, lease rental is March 2011, TNPL has raised plantation in 66,599 acres and pursues its commitment of increasing plantation in 15,000 acres every year to attain the target of 1 lakh acres by the year 2012-13.

2011, 12,012 farmers’ lands are covered under the extending the scheme in 15,000 acres every year, TNPL will be adding about 4,000 farmers under the scheme additionally every the scheme is completed by the year 2012 -13, about 25,000 farmers would have been covered under the addition to benefitting farmer community, the plantation programmes create positive impact on the eco-system where it is implemented as it stops soil erosion and further degradation of al agro forestry systems under thes e programmes will provide a green cover and thus restore the ecological balance of the operational area.Implementing of the tree farming activity in 40,000 ha (1, 00,000 acres) outside the forest area is a significant step towards converting the underutilized degraded wastelands into green r, by establishing pulpwood raw material outside the forest area, the same amount of natural forest remains protected without disturbance for pulpwood and Propagation and Research Project: To support the plantation programme, TNPL has set up one of the largest Clonal Propagation and Research Centres with a capacity of producing 1.50 crore saplings per year, adopting an integrated propagation approach of using both micro and macro propagation techniques for Eucalyptus, Casuarina and other pulp centre has 8,000 sq mtrs of fogging and misting chambers, 4,000 sq mtrs of hardening chamber and 10,000 sq mtrs of open nursery.Exp Ring Possibilities in Plantation Social Obligation: TNPL is committed to being a socially responsible organisation and has drawn up a well laid out CSR policy that aims to promote Economic, Social, Environmental and Cultural growth of the community at large in an equitable and sustainable Company’s goal is to protect and nourish the interests of all its stakeholders and contribute to sustainable , values and transparency form the basis of all its interactions within the community in which it its activities will be aligned to contribute to social aspirations of the community and will be carried out with integrity, honesty, dignity and decorum.The company adopts two-pronged approach to community development.

The scope of CSR activities would be distributed to six identified sectors like education, health, infrastructure, economic development, environment and promotion of culture and thrust areas will be identified in consultation with the local ts would be prioritised year wise and budget allocation made under various heads as Education - 20 percent, Health - 10 percent, Infrastructure - 25 percent, Economic development - 20 percent, Environment - 20 percent and Culture & Heritage - 5 oks come in attractive and trendy wrapper designing, durable binding and high quality paper for smooth and hassle-free writing.These notebooks come in popular sizes and in attractive price its pursuit of excellence in environmental management, TNPL consciously works to reduce the carbon footprints by ensuring energy efficient technology in all its company consumes bio-fuel and bio-gas to a larger extent in place of fossil nmental Concern of Indian Paper Industry International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 45 Non-Conventional Energy: TNPL is self-sufficient in power.27 lakh kwh wind power during the year 2010 enhance the energy efficiency, it is proposed to replace three number of low pressure power boilers of a total capacity of 180 tph with a new 120 tph high pressure boiler and two TG sets with a single energy efficient TG set.TNPL ventured into green energy generation by way of setting up wind farms.

2 Performance Indicators of TNPL Table 3: Performance Indicators of TNPL (in %) Year The structural changes in the financial indicators are measured through correlation analysis over the years from 2001-02 to 2010-11 which reveals that the change is high in case of Value per share (0.95) and is moderate in case of Return on Net Worth (0.The growth rate is determined with the help of trend analysis by taking 2001 -02 as the base year, which shows that the Return on Net Worth has a growth of 75 percent in the year 2010-11 with an average growth rate of 49 percent, Value per share has a growth of 142 percent in the year 2010 -11 with an average growth rate of 54 percent, EPS has a growth of 318 percent in the year 2010 -11 with an average growth rate of 136 percent, Dividend has a growth of 100 percent in the year 2010-11 with an average growth rate of 45 percent and Debt to Equity has a growth of 70 percent in the year 2010 -11 with an average growth rate of 4 it is observed that Earnings per Share have the highest growth rate over the years under study.It is noted from the significant test that all the chosen financial indicators have significant difference over the years whereas individually Return on net worth shows good result which is followed by Dividend rate, Value per share, Debt to equity and Earnings Per Share as per t g Selvi 46 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 for Return on net worth, 4: Test of Significance on the Financial Indicators Items Source: Annual Reports of TNPL, Various issues The performance of the TNPL is analysed over the years from 2001-02 to 2010-11 by considering the sales and profitability as the progress is analysed with the help of trend analysis which exhibits a growth rate of 119 percent in the year 2010-11 with an average growth of 50 percent and the same in case of profit is 136 percent with an average growth of 45 percent.

6 percent for sales and the correlation determination is 0.The pictorial representation is given ational Journal of Management and Development Studies, sion The total number of registered newspapers stood at 82, 237, 4853 New newspapers were registered during 2010- percentage of growth for registered publications over the previous year was 6.RNI approved 13,229 titles for the year 2010 ending March 31st largest number of newspapers and periodicals registered in any Indian language was in Hindi with a figure of 32,793.English had the second largest number of newspapers and periodicals which was 11, total circulation of newspapers stood at 32, 92, 04,841 as against 30,88,16,563 copies in 2 009- number of Annual statements received in RNI for the year 2010- 11 upto 15 June 2011 was 14,508 against 13,134 in 2009- 10 registering an increase of per the data from the Annual statements received, the highest number of newspapers were published in Hindi (7910), followed by English (1406), Urdu (938), Gujarati (761), Telugu (603), Marathi (521), Bengali (472), Tamil (272), Oriya (245), Kannada (200) and Malayalam (192).In terms of circulation, according to the report, Hindi newspapers continued to lead with 15, 54, 94,770 copies followed by English with 5,53,70,184 press had a figure of 2, 16, 39,230 data clearly indicates the evergreen marketing potentiality of the Indian Paper important challenge facing marketers is to identify which consumers are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products.

As pap er market has evergreen growing trend, the eco friendly production and marketing of TNPL is considered for analysis shows positive result both on the performance and financial indicators of business.099x 48 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 markets its products throughout the country and exports about 20 percent of its products to many countries across the the highly competitive paper market, TNPL has carved a niche as a Company that offers highest quality products and services that enhances the value for to its nature, the paper's industry's commitment to sustainability has advanced quicker than 's important that green products and sustainability enthusiasm are really factors one can use to differentiate from the competitors.Therefore the industries in general and the paper industries in particular can concentrate more on protecting the environment by adopting eco-friendly policies for the betterment of the nces Annual Reports of Paper Industry in India Belz F and Peattie K (2009): Sustainability Marketing: A Global ved January 2008 Dodds, John (2007)."Green Marketing: Challenges & Opportunities for the New Marketing Age" (2010), Retrieved 12-06- 2010.

“Quarterly Journal of Indian Pulp and Paper Association ”, pp."Season 5: It's Not Easy Being Green: Green Marketing".Development of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs): The Engine of Economic Growth Abstract: The small industries are uniquely placed for resolving a wide variety of the industrial development in ly conceived, they can play a pivotal role in industrialization of the country because they provide immediate large scale employment and have a comparatively higher labour/capital ratio; they need a shorter gestation period and relatively smaller markets to be economic; need lower investments; offer a method of ensuring a more equitable distribution of national income and facilitates an effective mobilization of resources of capital and skill which might otherwise remain unutilized, and they stimulate the growth of industrial entrepreneurship and promote a more diffused pattern of ownership and , micro, small and medium industry occupies a position of strategic importance in the Indian economic structure due to its significant contribution in terms of output, employment and Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) form the backbone of the Indian economy and have become engine of economic growth in India.The MSME sector is considered as an elixir for all the ills of a developing economy like India.The paper deals with micro, small and medium enterprises and their importance in economic growth and employment uction India is not only rural but also an agricultural country where every eight out of ten live in rural areas and every seven out of ten depend on fact is reinforced by its unchanging occupational structure ever is facing myriad problems like marginalization of cultivators, increasing casual labour and consequently unemployment, underemployment and create employment in rural areas and improve the economic conditions of rural poor, we need rural industrialization.

In India the rural dwellers, who constitute more than 70 per cent of India’s population are facing the acute problems of unemployment and miseries of these people led Mahatma Gandhi to come out with the ‘Back to the Village’ ideology with its emphasis on uplifting the stress the importance of the development of the rural areas and people who inhabited therein, he said, “Swaraj has no meaning for the millions if they do not know how to employ their enforced a said that, “The economic development is meaningful if aimed at the lifting up of the small peasant and converting the small producer himself into an active participant in productive ore, he said that the objective of real development means the development of the rural people”.Rural industries mainly cover the gamut of unorganized traditional sector, which is known as the Village and Small Industries (VSI) icance of small-scale industry lies in offering alternative employment opportunities to the rural masses, using local resources and limited capital and catering to the local independence, India has had strong policies to promote the small-scale industrial sector: it is labor intensive and thus creates more jobs, it contributes to decentralized industrial development and the units are flexible and able to quickly reorient themselves to emerging Scale Industries (SSIs) today account for 40 per cent of the industrial production, 35 per cent of the total exports, and employs almost 17 million people in 3.They are involved in food processing, hosiery and garment, and leather and leather these sectors are globally competitive and have a high Srinivasulu Bayineni and S.Mahaboobu Basha 50 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, share of small enterprises directly and indirectly is estimated to be 60 per cent of the total manufactured exports of of Literature A selected reviews of official studies and individual researchers, is attempted by keeping in view of t he present theme of the charya (1986) studies various problems and development of small scale and cottage industries in India, through critical reviews, analysis and case studies of national and international aik (1988) tries to evaluate the effects of change in industrial policy management, finance and role of government on small engineering emphasis is laid on the influence of state policy on small industry growth and development and interaction of ideas and organization.

According to Rangarajan (2002), the process of economic reforms has come in waves and sequences and has three , it started with the launching of planning with more stress on industrialization with particular reference to heavy , the wave of reforms was initiated when the growth rate was weak, the trickledown effect was not adequate, and the third was started in the late 80s and was more prominent after Subrahmanya (2004) highlighted the impact of globalization and domestic reforms on small-scale industries study stated that small industry had suffered in terms of growth of units, employment, output and exports.

The Researcher highlighted that the policy changes had also thrown open new opportunities and markets for the small-scale industries sector.(2009) look at the causal relationship among the three variables GDP, SSI output and SSI exports and also have compared the performance parameters of SSIs in the pre and post liberalization era.Dixit and Pandey (2011) used co-integration analysis to examine the causal relationship between SMEs output, exports, employment, number of SMEs and their fixed investment and India’s GDP, total exports and employment (public and private) for the period 1973- 74 to 2006-07., and Anjum, B (2012) investigated the performance of Small scale industry in India and focused on policy changes which have opened new opportunities for this sector.Their study concluded that SSI sector has made good progress in terms of number of SSI units, production & employment ology The study is based on secondary data which has been collected from the various issues of Annual Reports on MSMEs and Handbook of Statistics on the Indian Economy published by Ministry of MSMEs and Reserve Bank of India (RBI) study considers the time period from 1992 -93 to examine the performance of MSMEs in India, the available data have presented in suitable Act 2006 The MSME Development Act 2006, came into effect from 2 nd October, 2006, subsequent to which, both the Central and State Governments took effective measures towards implementation of the Act.

The term MSME has been defined in several ways varying from country to country and between the various sources giving MSME of the commonly used criteria that are taken into consideration while defining the term are the number of employees, total net assets, sales and investment , Development of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs): The Engine of Economic Growth International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 51 the most common definitional basis used is employment, there is a variation in defining the upper and lower size limit of an MSME.The evolution of the policy framework and support measures of the Government can be broadly grouped into the following three periods, viz.1948-91, During the first period, in all the Industrial Policy Resolutions from 1948 to 1991, recognition was given to the micro and small enterprises as they were considered t o be an effective tool to expand employment opportunities, help ensure equitable distribution of the national income and facilitate effective mobilization of private sector resources of capital and the second period, the New Industrial Policy for Small, Tiny and Village Enterprises (1991) laid down the framework for government support in the context of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization (LPG) which sought to replace protection with competitiveness to introduce more vitality and growth to MSEs in the face of stiff competition from foreign and open supportive measures were also taken on improving infrastructure, technology and quality of these enterprises.During the third period, the Ministry of MSME earlier known as Ministry of Small Scale Industries and Agro & Rural Industries (SSI & ARI) was setup in the year 1999 to provide a more focused attention to develop and promote this new policy package announced by the Central Government in August, 2000 sought to resolve the persisting problems relating to credit, infrastructure, technology and marketing more r, the implementation of MSMED Act, 2006 brought different components of economy which were earlier classified under the category of Small Scale Industries, Small Scale Business Sector Enterprise and Village & Cottage Industries together and expanded the scope of MSME sector substantially resulting in a high degree of sector is characterized by its spread into each village/town and all segments of non-agricultural sector of the diffusion of self employed/own account entrepreneurs and household enterprises that organize economic activities in an informal manner at the bottom end of scale of activity is another important feature of this sector.

These activities of the informal sector are quite numerous when it comes to numbers but small in terms of its contribution to the Gross Domestic India, the enterprises have been classified broadly into two categories – 1) manufacturing enterprises and 2) service , both categories of enterprises have been further classified into micro, small and medium enterprises based on the ir investment in plant and machinery (for manufacturing enterprises) or on equipments (in case of enterprises providing or rendering services).The present ceiling on investment to be classified as micro, small or medium enterprises is shown in Tables 1 and 2.Mahaboobu Basha 52 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 Table 1: Definitions Before 2nd October 2006 Classification Manufacturing Enterprises upto Rs.5 crore ($1 million) Source: The Office of Development Commissioner, Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) Annual Report, 2008-09, GOI, New pment of MSMEs countries are taking several measures to industrialize their economies to cope with the endemic problems like poverty, inequality and , the industrial sector could contribute significantly in attaining self-sufficiency by employing labour has been proved that the productivity of labour has been much higher in industry than in agriculture.

As such, industrialization has become inevit able for creating ization, Liberalization and Privatization (LPG) has made its impact felt on all aspects of the economy in the world and that also includes the micro, small and medium rapid pace of globalization has created numerous opportunities for the MSME sector, both in the domestic and in foreign role of MSMEs in developing and emerging economies is undisputed and is well buting significantly to the employment generation, poverty alleviation and rural development, MSMEs are considered to be the engine of economic growth, the world over.The development of the micro, small and medium enterprises (SME) sector is on the priority of Government per the Results-Framework Document (RFD) for the Union Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (2012-13), the Mission of the Government is to – “Promote growth and development of globally competitive Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, including Khadi, Village and Coir Development of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs): The Engine of Economic Growth International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 53 industries, in cooperation with concerned Ministries/Departments, State Governments and other stakeholders by providing support to the existing enterprises and encouraging the creation of new MSMEs stimulate innovative ideas/business methods, and entrepreneurial skills; they are flexible and can adapt quickly to the changing market demand and supply situations; help in diversifying economic activity, thus,contributing to industrial development and exports.Thus, the MSME sector contributes to nearly 45% of the manufacturing output and to 40% of the total exports of the ing to official estimates, this sector provides employment to about 70 million persons in over 30 million units throughout the er, there are more than 6000 products ranging from traditional to high-tech items, which are being manufactured by the MSMEs in is a well known fact that the MSME sector provides the maximum opportunities for both self-employment and jobs after the agriculture , it can be said without doubt that the MSMEs have performed extremely well over the years.The small industry sector in India which had small beginnings in the early 1950s has grown into prominence over years through its multi-faced role and occupies strategically significant position serving specific has been steadily enlarging its area of operations by entering the new product lines not produced earlier in the small scale sector, by dispersing over new locations where it was not that much well known earlier, and by drawing entrepreneurs with varied backgrounds and social the Indian context, MSMEs have become broad -based by giving special recognition to the service sector in its developmental programmes and particularly in the context of generation of self- employment Table-3, there were about 312 lakhs MSMEs in India during 2010-11 contributing to a production level of Rs.

7,73,487/- and providing employment to 10,95,758 Table also showed the data about fixed investment and exports during 1992-93 to Table-4, according to the Fourth All-India Census of Micro-Small and Medium Enterprises the size of the registered MSMEs was estimated to be comprises of 67 per cent of manufacturing enterprises and 33 per cent of services enterprises.About 45 per cent of the units were located in rural the total working enterprises, the proportion of micro, small and medium enterprises were 90 per cent of the registered enterprises in the MSME sector were proprietary concerns, about 4 per cent were partnership firms, and about 3 per cent were running as private companies and the balance were owned by public limited companies, cooperatives, trust of women enterprises in total was around 14 per obu Basha 54 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 Table 3: MSMEs Performance during 1992-93 to 2010-11 Year (MSME) Annual Report, 2006-07, GOI, New nges faced by MSMEs One of the foremost challenges faced by MSMEs is inadequate access to statistics compiled in the Fourth Census of MSME sector, revealed that only 11.pdf factors affecting milk market outlet choices of urban and nbsp 2 per cent of the units (both registered and unregistered) had availed of finance through financial institutions, 1 per cent had finance from non - financial institutions; and the majority of units i.However, various estimates on the credit availability to the MSME sector indicate a serious credit the heterogeneous and unorganized nature of the sector poses inherent challenges for a credible estimate, the fact remains that there is considerable credit gap, which is a matter of serious concern and needs to be bridged if the sector has to foray into the next level of growth path Prior Antithrombotic Use is Associated with Favorable nbsp AURA the heterogeneous and unorganized nature of the sector poses inherent challenges for a credible estimate, the fact remains that there is considerable credit gap, which is a matter of serious concern and needs to be bridged if the sector has to foray into the next level of growth path.

T able-5 shows the credit and finance schemes/proposals for 12th Five Year Plan.Another serious challenge faced by MSME is – Lack of equity support for the MSME sector inhibits their support provides the leveraging capacity for raising additional debt to support capital order to fill equity gap, the Working Group recommends introduction of a new scheme to supplement Promoter’s Contribution by way of equity support with an allocation of to finance needs to be enlarged through alternative sources of capital such as, private equity, venture capital and angel funds /dissertation/should-i-get-a-custom-writing-assistance-dietetics-dissertation-vancouver-double-spaced-premium.Access to finance needs to be enlarged through alternative sources of capital such as, private equity, venture capital and angel funds.This is crucial for facilitating the growth of knowledge based enterprises which have high potential in Indian obu Basha 56 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 Table 5: Credit and Finance: Schemes/Proposals for 12th Five Year Plan (Rs.

Crore) 19450 Five Year Plan (2012-17), Ministry of MSMEs, additional important challenge is without infusion of appropriate technology, survival in the global market place would be a question mark for a large majority of micro & small enterprises and even the medium ore, the urgent challenge is development of appropriate technologies for various manufacturing processes which will lead to substantial reduction in cost of manufacturing by enhancing labour productivity, reducing material wastage and minimizing energy , institutional framework and policy specifications are important factors in helping the evolution and success of MSMEs across the globe.Many countries have a range of programmes in diverse areas of MSME development, viz., financing, technology, innovation, manageri al ability, market information, and developmental assistance, aimed at improving the working environment for from this, the following challenges also faced by the MSME sector: Procurement of raw material at a competitive cost; Inadequate infrastructure facilities, including power, water, roads, etc Lack of skilled manpower for manufacturing, services, marketing, etc; Multiplicity of labour laws and complicated procedures associated with compliance of such laws; Problems of storage, designing, packaging and product display; Low technology levels and lack of access to modern technology; and Lack of access to global pment of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs): The Engine of Economic Growth International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 57 Conclusion The paper focused on the growth of Indian Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise sector over the period of 1992-93 to MSME sector has often been termed the ‘engine of growth’ for developing the last few years, there has been major policy changes at the federal and state level aimed at consolidating and developing this MSME De velopment Act of 2006 is perhaps the most crucial of these recent policy g the importance of the MSME sector, the government has initiated several policy measures, which can contribute to faster development of the sector.

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Though this sector was given importance from the pre-independence period itself it was only after 1947 that a stable state support and policy initiative was made in its l Industrial Policy Resolutions were formulated to promote industrial growth in the country and, often, the thrust was on the small-scale is clear that India needs a strategic Industrial Policy for the MSMEs and has to take necessary steps to encourage the development of the MSMEs because of the inherent advantages they encourage the spread of industrialization in the country it is essential that the MSMEs be provided with a growth oriented environment and adequate infrastructural facilities.

(2004), “Small Industry and Globalization: Implications, Performance and Prospects”, Economic and Political Weekly, Volume XXXIX, No.(2009), “Performance Analysis of Small Scale Industries - A Study of Pre-liberalization and Post-liberalization period”, International Journal of Business and Management, Vol 1, No Jump to Where to buy a report ecology us letter size phd standard double   - How to get writing services ecology lab report apa 139.   single spaced business high school who can do my custom .   3 hours standard asa 2 page(s)/550 by..(2009), “Performance Analysis of Small Scale Industries - A Study of Pre-liberalization and Post-liberalization period”, International Journal of Business and Management, Vol 1, No.

(2011), “SMEs and Economic Growth in India: Co -integration Analysis”, The IUP Journal of Financial Economics, Gomes (2001), “SMEs and Industrial Clusters: Lessons for India from Italian Experience”, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol.MSME Development Act 2006, Ministry of MSME, Government of India, New ry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises, 2007: Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in India: An Overview”, Ministry of MSME, Government of India, New Delhi Jump to Help me with report ecology quality american 134 pages / 36850   -   assistance ecology lab report 48 hours astronomy report Chicago/Turabian .   Students prefer to work with us   the student is met will ridicule and  .MSME Development Act 2006, Ministry of MSME, Government of India, New ry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises, 2007: Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in India: An Overview”, Ministry of MSME, Government of India, New Delhi.Mahaboobu Basha 58 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.

(1988), Developing Strategy for Small Industries, Himalaya Publishing House, Bombay, pp 56-60 should i order a health law thesis Platinum 123 pages / 33825 words Rewriting.(1988), Developing Strategy for Small Industries, Himalaya Publishing House, Bombay, pp 56-60.(2012), “Small Scale Industry: An Engine of Growth”, Zenith International Journal of Business Economics & Management Research, ational Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol should i order a health law thesis Platinum 123 pages / 33825 words Rewriting.(2012), “Small Scale Industry: An Engine of Growth”, Zenith International Journal of Business Economics & Management Research, ational Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 59 The Level of Satisfaction of the Policyholders on the Service Offered by Public and Private Life Insurers in Nilgiris District K.Chellasamy Introduction Insurance affects everything and everything affects Insurance’ is a famous insurance is needed to individuals.It provides safety and security to the family in old age as well as on the occurrence of death of the life encourages savings among the individuals, as they have to pay periodical Indian insurance sector is having a dream ’s life insurance sector boasts of the second largest mobilization of savings after banks and constitutes fifteen per cent of the Gross Domestic Products (GDP) savings.

The insurance sector by its nature attracts long-term funds, which are invested in productive heads for the development of the Indian economy.In India presently twenty-three private players are doing business in the life insurance is estimated that by the next two years, the number of private players in the insurance sector will be more than nationalization of insurance business was the major milestone in the development of the insurance business in ition has brought more products better customer service and has had a positive impact on the economy in terms of income generations on employment success of private players has been attributed to their innovative offer s, customer-centric products, increasing awareness levels of customer.Through a need-based structured approach of not only selling sound risk management practices, enhanced service standards that reach out to the customer through a number of distribution and communication channels but also provide advice to the effective customer satisfaction programme must include management commitment and support, employees involvement and training, gathering information from stakeholders, customer contact and personnel data, warranty cards and service records, face-to-face evaluation, sorting responses, formulating wants and satisfaction and action customers explain their satisfaction with a product or service in terms of specific aspects such as the product attributes, price, customer service, or a combination of these various ent of the Problem Insurance sector plays a vital role in the development of any economy and social life of the people by providing long-term funds for infrastructural development and at the same time strengthening the risk - taking ability of the fact, insurance companies are the ideal sources of generation of long -term funds for all round development of the economy.Customer s a ti sf a ct i on is fundamental to the well- being of individual consumers, to the profits of firm’s supported through purchasing and patronization, and to the stability of Economic and political nce in India is popular only as an investment opportunity and not as a pure life insurance of the insurance policies offered by insurance companies focus on providing the customers with opportunity for investment and the customers are aware of the products through agents, whose K.

Chellasamy 60 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.

2, July 2013 objective and expectation from the company are to generate commission rather than rendering quality service and matching the product features more transparent to the researcher believes that there is a need to study and analyze the satisfaction level of policyholders using life insurance policies in public and private insurance customer was sensitive to many factors which affect their choice of buying an insurance product from a attempt has been made with the view of demographic background, innovativeness, product service offering, premium perception, and the level of policyholder’s satisfaction in their past experience.The entry challenges of new players in the Indian insurance sector have been related to the timing of entry, the choice of joint venture partner, segments to attack, services to offer and channels to adopt without violating the regulatory following research problems have been taken into account for the study: 1.What is the level of satisfaction with the service offered by the public and private insurance companies in Nilgiris district? 2.What are the factors that influence the policy holders in selecting a policy in Nilgiris district? Scope of the Study companies in Nilgiris study is concerned with policy holders satisfaction in terms of awareness of the policy, preferring life insurance policy with associated with returns, their attitude etc., considering their income , occupation and other factors from the size of the sum services offered under the study area were selected based on the number of po licies issued by the public and private life insurance study does not cover the mediclaim policy, general policy insurance, marine policy, and fire examine and compare the level of policyholder’s satisfaction in the public and private insurance companies in Nilgiris following hypotheses were formulated and tested for the study: H0: There is no relationship between personal factors and the level of satisfaction on the post - purchase service offered by the public and private insurance s of Data For the purpose of the study, the required data have been collected from both primary and secondary y data collected from the public and private life insurance companies’ policyholders of Nilgiris district with the help of interview schedule Level of Satisfaction of the Policyholders on the Service Offered By Public and Private Life Insurers International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.

2, July 2013 61 Area of Study The Nilgiris hills have a history going back to a good many Nilgiris is known for its rich and varied scenic district is called the Blue l sources cite the reason as the smoky haze enveloping the area, while other sources say it is because of the Kurunji flower, which blooms every twelve years giving the slopes a bluish district of Nilgiris as a result of its natural charm and pleasant climate was a place of special attraction for the Europeans.The district is home to many beautiful hill stations popular with tourists who flock to them during summer and the tourism is an important source of revenue for the is is renowned for its eucalyptus oil and ts are also attracted to study the lifestyles of the various tribes and to visit the sprawling tea and vegetable entire economy of the district depends upon the success and failure of to intense urban development activities the Nilgiris has become prone to natural disaster.Eco-imbalance also plays a disastrous role for the natural erosion is also a serious problem that threatens the ecology of this fragile impact of natural hazards on economic well-being of the people (of the Nilgiris) and their suffering have increased , there arises the necessity and importance of life insurance.Development Authority (IRDA) for the period from 2002-2003 to 2011-2012.The researcher has conducted a survey for ten months from November 2011 to September ng namely Udhagamandalam, Coonoor, Kotagiri, Gudalur, Kundha and hundred respondents, at the rate of one hundred from each taluk have been taken for the ques of Analysis The collected data have been used for analysis with the help of the statistical tools are chi-square, ANOVA, factor icance of the Study Many studies have been done previously on insurance companies.

But a study of this kind is limited in present study not only covered the perception but also it covered the attitude of the policyholders of private and public insurance helps to know in detail about insurance companies’ right from its inception stage to its growth and future study would be helpful to the management of the insurance companies to draw appropriate policies to enhance the satisfaction of the policyholders and for the betterment of the insurance result of the study helps the policyholders to invest their money in appropriate insurance companies.This study would also help the future researcher in carrying out their research in the field of insurance companies and policyholders attitude in some other area with multi-dimensional samy 62 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 Limitations of the Study The following are the limitations of the study:- This study is confined to Nilgiris district does not deal with the attitude of insurance policyholders in other districts of Tamilnadu.Reluctance of the some policyholders to give their full policy is the level of satisfaction Response rate received from the various sections Following Table 1 shows that the response rate received from the various sections by the policy ho lders in public and private Insurance 1 reveals the response received from various sections in public and private insurance companies.The variables new business section, account sections, cash counter, policy service section, claims and settlement section, grievances cell, manager and development officer, agent and other employees of the public and private insurance companies are significant at five per cent y section alone is not is concluded that there is significant difference in the mean score of the level of response received mean score between various sections in Public and Private Insurance 1: Response Rate Received From the Various Sections S.

*significant at 5 per cent level **significant at 1 per cent level Table 2 reveals that the level of satisfaction on post -purchases by the policyholders in public and private insurance t of premium reminder notice on time, Subsequent notice in default of payment of premium, Bonus on the policy, providing loans by hypothecating the policies are significant at one per cent ness in issuing the policy is significant at five per cent level in public and private insurance ication of general and technical doubts about the policy, Introducti on of New schemes, Penalty charged for late remittance are not is concluded that there is significant difference in the level of satisfaction score between public and private companies.Out of the nine facilities provided six are significant and the weighted average satisfaction score is high in private life insurance companies than public life insurance companies in several facilities.H0: There is no significant difference in the level of satisfaction score on the post purchase b y the Policy holders of Public and Private Insurance Companies.98 in private Insurance companies are significant.It is concluded that there is significant difference between the mean score among different groups of Policy holders in Public and private Insurance Companies.

64 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 Table 3: ANOVAs Level of Satisfaction on Post Purchase Company Table 4 shows that two tests namely, KAISER-MAYER-OLKIN Measure of samples adequacy, Bartlett test of sphercity approx.chi-square has been applied to study whether the relationship among the variables has been significant or -MAYER-OLKIN Measure of samples adequacy shows that the value of test statistics is 0.684, when mean factor analysis for select variable is found to be appropriate or good to the tt test is used to test whether the data are statically significant or not with the value of test statistics and the associated significant shows that there exists a high relationship among variables.Short message service (SMS), Enterprise portals, Information over the internet, Satellite sampark branches, Premium payment in any branches, Premium payment by cheque \ demand draft, Premium payment through internet, Premium payment by KIOSKS, Premium payment by ATM’s, Premium payment by bank, Premium payment by provident fund, Provision for alteration in policy, Provision for revival of lapsed policy, Availability of loan on policy, Info centers, Premium payment by electronic clearing service and standing instruction to bank, Premium payment by sa lary saving scheme are the factors utilising this all the 20 variables namely V1, V2….

V20 factor analysis is performed and the results are presented in Tables 5.The Level of Satisfaction of the Policyholders on the Service Offered By Public and Private Life Insurers International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 65 Table 5: Rotated Factor Loadings Awareness about Facilities Provided Public in Life Insurance Company Source: Primary data Table 5 gives the rotated factor loadings, communalities, eight values and the per cent of variance explained by the of the twenty variables, eight factors have been extracted and these eight factors put together explain the total variance of these values to the extent of order to reduce the number of factors and enhance the interpretability, the factors are rotation increases the quality of interpretation of the factors.There are several methods of the initial factor matrix to attain simple structure of the varimax rotation is one such method to obtain better result for interpretation is employed and the results are given in 6.Eigen factors were identified as being maximum per cent variance five variables V4, V5, V6, V12 and V16 were grouped together as factor I and accounts three variables V1, V10 and V15constituted the factor II and accounts 8.

The three variables V2, V9 and V20 were grouped together as factor III and accounts 8.Chellasamy 66 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 Table 6: Clustering of variables into factors – public life insurance company Factor - The one variable 11 constituted the factor IV and accounts 8.The four variables V3, V14, V18 and V19 were grouped together as factor V and accounts 8.The two variables V7 and V8 constituted the factor VI and accounts 7.

The two variables V12 and V17 were grouped together as factor VII and accounts 7.Thus the Factor analysis condensed and simplified the twenty variables and grouped into eight factors explaining 67.21 per cent of the variability of all the twenty 7 gives the rotated factor loadings, communalities, eight values and the per cent of variance explained by the of the twenty variables, eight factors have been extracted and these eight factors put together explain the total variance of these problems to the extent of 67.In order to reduce the number of factors and enhance the interpretability, the factors are rotation increases the quality of interpretation of the are several methods of the initia l factor matrix to attain simple structure of the varimax rotation is one such method to obtain better result for interpretation is employed and the results are given in Table 8.The Level of Satisfaction of the Policyholders on the Service Offered By Public and Private Life Insurers International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.

2, July 2013 67 Table 7: Rotated factor loadings awareness about facilities provided private life insurance company S.Eigen factors were identified as being maximum per cent variance four variables V2, V5, V7 and V18 were grouped together as factor I and accounts 10.The three variables V12, V16 and V19 constituted the factor II and accounts 9.The two variables V8 and V17 were grouped together as factor III and accounts 8.The four variables V11, V13, V14 and V20 constituted the factor IV and accounts 8.

The two variables V4 and V10 were grouped together as factor V and accounts samy 68 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 Table 8: Clustering Of Variables into Factors - Private Life Insurance Company Factor 0.68 The two variables 1 and 6 constituted the factor VI and accounts 8.The one variable V15 was grouped together as factor VII and accounts two variables V6 and V9 constituted the factor VIII and accounts 8.

Thus the Factor analysis condensed and simplified the twenty variables and grouped into eight factors explaining 62.

88 per cent of the variability of all the twenty sion In the Life insurance scenario India occupies tenth position in the world among the one hundred and fifty overall business of life insurance has been significantly increased after privatization but still a huge Indian population lives is being uninsured.So Life insurance investment will grow rapidly in India for the next decades due to increasing public and private insurance companies should improve the enquiry companies’ policyholders are satisfied with their company policies and Level of Satisfaction of the Policyholders on the Service Offered By Public and Private Life Insurers International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 69 References Arulsuresh J and S Rajamohan (2010), “Attitude of the Agents Towards the Marketing Of Insurance Service by the LIC of India”, The IUP Journal of Risk & Insurance, Vol.(2010), “Life Insurance Human life value based selling and after sales service “Insurance chronicle ICFAI university press, January pp No 71-74./ADMINCMS/cms/frmGeneral ?DF=AR&mid= kshmi (2009) “A Comparative Study on the Perception Level of the Services Offered by LIC and ICICI Prudential”, Indian Journal of Marketing, August.40- 54 Krishna Kumar Agarwal and Rajesh Kr Upadhyay (2010), “The Changing face of the Indian life Insurance Industry” Insurance chronicle ICFAI University press January pp Babu (2009) “Emerging Trends in Indian Insurance Market”, The ICFAI University Journal Of Risk & Insurance, Vol VI, Nos.Sector”, Indian Journal of Marketing October pp.S (2010), “Indian Insurance Industry, the exciting journey ahead” Insurance CHRONCLE ICFAI University press January pp.V (2010), "Indian Insurance Industry Lessons from the country’s Economic surge” Insurance Chronicle ICFAI university press.

and Saravanan Laxmanan (2009) “Life Insurance Companies in India: Performance and Prospect”, The ICFAI University Journal Of Risk & Insurance, Vol VI, asa Rao M V S (2009) “Growing Indian Economy: An Impressive Performance of Life Insurance Business”, The ICFAI University Journal of Risk & Insurance, Vol VI, er segmentation Analysis”, Journal of Insurance & Risk Management, Vol VI, Issue 12, June.70 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, nthil (2008), “Evaluation of Quality Dimensions in Life Insurance Market: Customer segmentation Analysis” Journal of Insurance & Risk Management, Vol VI, Issue 12, June, pp nce regulatory and development authority, Annual report -2011, ational Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 71 Relationship Marketing in Indian Banks: An Empirical Assessment Mushtaq Ahmad Bhat and Ahmad Bhat Abstract:Banking has become increasingly competitive industry with fragmented customer groups and their heterogeneous overcome these challenges, it is imperative for banks to develop quality relations with their customers so as to retain er based determinants’ and perceptions of quality relationships, therefore, play an important role when choosing a r, a relationship does not improve unless it is measured.Further, better customer relationships with customers is the strategy that is increasingly being offered as a key to service provider’s efforts to position themselves more effectively in the market view of this widespread belief, an attempt has been made in the present paper to study customer relationships of banks with a view to offer suggestions, on the basis of the study results, to make overall bank customer relationships more effective and study is based on a sample of one thousand two hundred (1200) customers of four major banks operating in northern responses have been integrated into important factors by applying factor analysis to validate specific measure of relationship empirical findings reveal that private banks are relatively better on bank customer relationships in comparison to public sector banks and, suggests improvement in Trust and Communication dimensions of relationship marketing to augment the quality of bank customer relationships.Key Words: Relationship Marketing , Dimensions of Relationship Marketing, Customer Retention, Customer Loyalty, increasingly empowered and financially literate bank product developments are easy to duplicate and besides being identical can only be distinguished on the basis of relationship ore, customer relationships is potentially an effective tool that banks can use to gain a strategic advantage and survive in today’s ever-increasing competitive environment with banks not only competing among each other; but also with non-banks and other financial institutions (Kaynak and Kucukemiroglu, 1992; Hull, 2002).

One strategic focus that banks can implement to remain competitive would be to retain as many customers as possible through relationship marketing.The relationship marketing tries to establish an intimacy i.individualized links with customers via strong appeal and continuing commitment (Lee and Carter, 2005).The relationship marketing offers new opportunities for banks, since it is loyal marketing within the framework of loyalty and relationship to flourish, there should be trust, commitment and communication between the interested parties.This means that this kind of marketing aims to create, maintain and improve the long term loyalty.

Need to buy an interdisciplinary studies case study 26 pages 7150 nbsp The literature on financial intermediation has primarily focused on banks as relationship this capacity banks develop close relationship with customers over time and such proximity between the bank and the customer facilitates to develop trust and confidence among the bank argument for customer retention is relatively straight forward 26 Feb 2016 - The standard facility requirements for most Air Force missions haveMedical and Medical Support, Research and Training Facilities.For the purposes of this Manual, these terms are often usedand for alterations that involve work outside the existing building lines.Page 4612,650 1, argument for customer retention is relatively straight forward.Satisfied customers share their experiences with five or six people while dissatisfied customers might inform another ten (Zai ri, 2000).It costs 25 per Mushtaq Ahmad Bhat and Ahmad Bhat 72 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol 19 May 2018 - Tags management, writing, do my research paper cheap custom research papersanatomy a4 (british/european) 3 hours standard asa 2 page(s)/550 by.

30 days 46 pages / 12650 words law research papers expert essaycharacteristic enables astronomers, and librarians, to build systems in an.It costs 25 per Mushtaq Ahmad Bhat and Ahmad Bhat 72 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 cent more to attract new customers than to maintain existing customers (Newman, et 19 May 2018 - Tags management, writing, do my research paper cheap custom research papersanatomy a4 (british/european) 3 hours standard asa 2 page(s)/550 by.30 days 46 pages / 12650 words law research papers expert essaycharacteristic enables astronomers, and librarians, to build systems in an.2, July 2013 cent more to attract new customers than to maintain existing customers (Newman, r, Naumann (1995) and Dawes and Swailes (1999) found that retaining an existing customer costs about five times less in money, time and corporate resources compared with attracting a new customer while Newman, et.

, (1998) indicated that an increase in only five per cent in customer loyalty would grow in profitability about 25–85 per r, long term customers consume less time and are less sensitive to price changes (Reichheld and Kenny, 1990; Healy, 1999).The philosophy of relationship marketing relays on gaining competitive advantage for the company due to retention of customers for a longer time, among the group of permanent clients of the organisation by keeping and growing their satisfaction level towards the realised gains.Existing literature proposes that there is a positive relationship between relationship marketing and organizational us studies have shown positive links between loyalty and firm example, the work of Reichheld (1996) and Gronroos (2000) among others have been significant in establishing the importance of relationship marketing and business the past years the interest in retaining customers has increased considerably with marketing attention shifting gradually but definitely from mutually independent transactions to loyalty-based repeat purchases (Berry, 1995 and Winer, 2001).In view of the growing importance of bank customer relationships, an attempt has been made, in the present study, to measure the quality of bank customer relationship of commercial banks in northern India.Such an analysis will provide banks a quantitative estimate of their relationship being perceived by their customers’ with intricate details and to suggest, on the basis of study results, ways and means for improving quality of relationships in banks with a view to make overall bank customer relationship more effective and ing (Berry, 1983; Jackson, 1985; Christopher, phenomenon described by this concept is strongly supported by on-going trends in modern business (Webster, 1992).

Berry (1983) along with Morgan and Hunt (1994) viewed relationship marketing as a strategy to attract, maintain and enhance customer relationships whereas Gronroos (1994) states that relationship marketing is to identify, establish, maintain and enhance and when necessary also to terminate relationships with customers and other stake holders, at a profit, so that the objective of al l parties involved are met and this is done by mutual exchange and fulfillment of son (1996) is of the view that a firm’s long term success is dependent on the network of relationships that it is able to maintain with various stakeholders and the firms market strength is thus derived from its relationship or association with various er’s perceived value may, therefore, influence and reflect the firm’s market ting the concept of relationship marketing, Berry (1992) highlights the firm’s strategic advantages in maintaining the customer base as opposed to a focus merely on attracting new is, therefore, argued that the firm’s competitiveness will be influenced by the value the firm is able to crea te through its network of relationships.Relationship Marketing in Indian Banks: An Empirical Assessment International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol., (2004) relationship marketing involves much less than managing the marketing mix dimensions of a product, price, place and promotion.That is, to the researcher, it is much more important to manage the interactive dimensions of people, processes and physical evidence for organizations to survive in this highly competitive environment., (2006) further suggested that the purpose of relationship marketing is to enhance customer service, improve customer satisfaction and ensure customer addition, Jobber and Fahy (2006) reported that relationship marketing is the process of creating, developing and enhancing relationship with customers and other stakeholders.

It may also refer to the development, growth, maintenance of long- term, cost- effective exchange relationship with individual customers, suppliers, employees, and other partners for mutual and Armstrong (2008) coincide with this and stated that, it is a process of enhancing strong value-laden relationships with customers and other customer retention brings a number of benefits to the firm (Colgate, et., 1996; Reichheld and Sasser, 1990; Storbacka, et.The lo nger a customer stays with a firm the more utility the customer generates (Reichheld and Sasser, 1990).This is the outcome of number of factors relating to the time the customer spends with the include the higher costs of introducing and attracting a new customer thereby increases the value and number of purchases, the customer understanding of the firm and the positive word of mouth promotion.In addition to the benefits the customer retention brings into the firm, literature also suggests that the costs of attracting new customer may be five times as costly as keeping existing customers (Rust and Zahorik, 1993).

In most service firms, employees play a major role in creating and maintaining trust and relationship between the firm and the customer (Parasuraman, e firms by their very inherent characteristic of inseparable production and consumption, posses the elements necessary to form a relationship with the customer (Gronroos, 1994).Moreover the very essence of service e ncounter, in which the customer directly interacts with the firms employees’, offers an ideal platform for the development of a relationship between the firm and its customers (Rosen and Surprenant, 1998).Sample Design Keeping in view the paucity of time and financial resources, the present study is limited to northern India study is further limited to four banks namely: Jammu and Kashmir Bank (JKB), Punjab National Bank (PNB), Housing and Development Financial Corporation Bank (HDFC Bank) and St ate Bank of India (SBI).The decision regarding sample organisation has been made in view of the fact that among the best private sector banks, HDFC Bank and JKB have been ranked 1 st and 9th respectively by BSE and Bloomberg (2011) with maximum business operations and branch network in northern India than any other private sector bank.

In the same way, among public sector banks, SBI and PNB ranked 1st and 13th respectively by the same agencies have been selected keeping in view that SBI is one of the largest public sector banks in the world and the largest public sector bank in India in terms of business turnover, branch network and employment.

Punjab National Bank is one of the largest public sector banks in India with maximum operations in northern sample size for the present study is limited to twelve hundred respondents which represents 25% bank customers from each choosing a bank customer, the method of simple random sampling was important demographic Mushtaq Ahmad Bhat and Ahmad Bhat 74 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 characteristics like age, sex, level of income, level of education and profession were taken into consideration while seeking the response from the these demograp hic characteristics have an important bearing on the bank-customer effort was made to give a balanced representation to above demographic characteristics to make the sample representative.A considerable number of respondents belonged to the age group of 31-40 years (37.41%) followed by the age group of 20-30 years (34.75%) where as the age group of above 51 years were the least (6.

67 %) followed by the age group of 41-50 years ( respondents were highest in number (69%).A sizeable number of respondents were graduates (48.84%) and the remaining had their secondary level education (12.92%) belonged to the in come group of 21,000-40,000 per month followed by the income group of 41,000-60,000 (27.17%) wher e as the least participants (10.

33%) belonged to the income group of above 61,000 followed by the incom e group of up to 20,000 ( e class respondents were highest in number (60%) followed by b usiness (28.42%) where as professionals were the least (11.Saving account holders were large in nu mber (74.50%) followed by current account holders ( pment of Questionnaire and Data Collection The study is based on the primary data collected from the bank customers through a questionnaire designed and developed after consultations and discussions on the aforesaid research problem with the panel of customers, bank officials and academicians as well as after reviewing the relevant literature.A ten-point Likert scale, ranging from strongly disagrees which scored 1 to strongly agree which scored 10, was used for this study and all questions were phrased questionnaire was piloted on forty bank customers of four commercial banks in the elimination, addition and rephrasing of several questions, the final questionnaire was prepared consisting of twenty -three data collected from bank customers was analysed and purified through factor analysis with the help of 19.

0 version of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software to identify the factors that explain the pattern of correlation within a set of observed variables and to simplify and reduce the data to identify a small number of factors that explained most of the variances observed in the much larger number of manifested variables (Foster and Thomas, 2001).

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The study used R-mode Principal Component Analysis with a Varimax Rotation and Eigen value equal to or more than 1 (Kinnear and Taylor, 1987).Initially, the first exercise failed in providing any suitable factorial framework within 25 the first round of 2 nd exercise, 5 factors were extracted with loadings equal to or above 0.50, thereby deleting 2 items within 06 iterations with communalities of a twenty-one (21) items ranged from 0 Need to get a ecology lab report British A4 British European 2018 nbsp.50, thereby deleting 2 items within 06 iterations with communalities of a twenty-one (21) items ranged from 0.

761 indicating that a large amount of variance has been extracted by the factor addition, two items (V12 and V22) namely, your bank is flexible in serving your needs and your bank provides customized services to customers respectively were below the suggested value of 0.

50 (Haier and Anderson, 2006) and were not considered for further analysis Where to order an ecology lab report single spaced Academic British 6 nbsp.50 (Haier and Anderson, 2006) and were not considered for further analysis.Relationship Marketing in Indian Banks: An Empirical Assessment International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol Where to order an ecology lab report single spaced Academic British 6 nbsp.Relationship Marketing in Indian Banks: An Empirical Assessment International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 75 Table 1: Summary of Results From Scale Purification: Dimensions, Factor Loadings, communalities, Eigen value and Variance Explained Factor/ 76 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 The factors finally selected have been named indicating various variables/statements grouped under the given set.Thus out of 23 statements, 21 got grouped under five factors, viz.

03% VE (Variance Explained), Competence ( first factor Trust followed by Competence contains most of the elements (6 and 4 respectively) and explains most of the variance ( , Trust and Competence are important determinants of perceived relationship marketing dimensions in Reliability of the scale was tested by using Cronbach’s Alpha ( ).The present generated scale achieved the scores of 0.825 (Table -2) which is highly acceptable reliability coefficient (Nunnaly, 1978).The Cronbach’s Alpha was also applied to each factor/dimension which rev ealed an Alpha ( ) score of 0.All the five factors/dimension scored more than 0.

644, revealing an acceptable level of 2: Reliability Result Score Factor The adequacy of the sample size was confirmed using both the Kaiser-Meyer Olkin (KMO) Sampling Adequacy Test and Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity (BTS).904) exceeded satisfactory value and revealed a Chi-Square at 8244.000) which verified that correlation matrix was not an identity matrix, thus validating the suitability of factor KMO measure of sample adequacy was performed which showed KMO=0.904 is higher than the suggested value of 0.

Table 3: KMO and Bartlett’s Test *Significant at 1% -Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy .578* International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 77 Analysis and discussion The main objective of this study was to measure the perceived quality of bank customer relationship, per se, the area of questioning and analysis related to relationship marketing and its tions of bank customers were measured on a ten point strongly disagree/strongly agree likert’s scale and mean scores were calculated separately for each bank, the results of which are shown in following tables: Overall relationships in banks under table clearly shows relatively higher quality relationships in JKB (7.79) while as SBI and PNB are relatively low (6.Dimension-wise analysis reveals that JKB and PNB’s relationship scores are relatively high on conflict handling (ranked 1st) followed by communication skills (ranked 2nd) whereas these banks differ on other dimensions; JKB is relatively low on trust (ranked 5th) followed by competence (ranked 4th) while as PNB is relatively low on commitment (ranked 5th) followed by trust (ranked 4th).

Further, the data clearly reveals that HDFC and SBI are relatively high on communication skills and conflict handling (ranked 1 st and 2nd respectively) where as these banks are relatively low on commitment followed by trust and competence (ranked 5th, 4th and 3rd respectively).Table 4: Overall Qualities of Relationships S.78 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 Dimension-Wise Analysis Trust From the analysis of the data on Table 5, it is quite evident that JKB followed by HDFC are relatively high (7.72 respectively) on trust while as PNB and SBI are relatively low (5.

In other words it conveys that, in bank customer relationship, private bank keep their promises as compared to public sector e sector banks, under reference, have been reported very high relatively on reliable promises.JKB, however, is relatively low on ful filment of its obligations towards its customers (6.77) followed by concern of security of transaction (6.97) while reverse is the case in respect of HDFC the SBI has been reported relatively high on keeping promises (6.

83) followed consistency in service quality (6.

55) but the bank is low on fulfilling its obligation towards its customers (5.46) followed by confidence in bank services (5.93) and employees respecting their customers (6.PNB, as reported by its customers, is high in providing consistent service quality (ranked 1st) followed by keeping promises but the bank is relatively low on customer confidence in bank services (ranked 6th) followed by banks obligation towards its customers.Table 5: Relationship Scores on Trust S.

International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 79 Competence The data on Table 6 highlights banks technological and commercial competence and brings to fore that JKB followed by HDFC are ranked first and second respectively on said dimension followed by PNB and SBI (ranked 4th and 3rd respectively).Element wise analysis of the said dimension reveals that all banks, under reference, ranked equally on all le approach of the banks to suit financial needs of the customers has been reported by their respective customers relatively high (ranked 1st) followed by knowledge about market trends while as bank councilors readiness to help their customers followed by advice to customers about their investment (ranked 4th and 3rd respectively) are reported relatively : 6 Relationship Scores on Competence S.Data related to banks enduring desire to maintain a valued relationship (commitment) with their customers has been presented in Table 7.The analysis of the said table brings to light that private banks, JKB and HDFC, are relatively high on commitment while as public sector banks (PNB and SBI) scored relatively low on the said t wise analysis of the said dimension reveals higher score of JKB on employees role in building customer relationships (6.

07) followed by personal services to customers (5.82) whereas, least score is observed on efforts made by the bank t o find needs of their customers (5.30) followed by increased customer convenience by using a variety of delivery channels (5.Efforts made by HDFC bank to find needs of the customers were reported relatively high (ranked first) by its respective customers followed by increased customer convenience using a number of delivery sector banks, PNB and SBI, have been ranked third on increased customer convenience using a variety of delivery channels followed by efforts of the bank to find needs of the customer (ranked Mushtaq Ahmad Bhat and Ahmad Bhat 80 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, scored relatively higher on personalised services to customers (ranked 1 st) but reported relatively low on employees’ role in building customer relationships (ranked 4 th).Contrary scores on said elements of commitment are reported by the respective customers of 7: Relationship Scores on Commitment S.

Communication From the analysis of the data on the Table 8, it is clear that private banks, JKB and HDFC, have scored relatively high (ranked 1st and 2nd) on communication dimension while as PNB followed by SBI scored relatively low (ranked 4th and 3rd respectively) on said dimension.Element wise analysis of the said dimension brings to light that public sector banks (PNB and SBI) are reported relatively high on providing accurate information to their respective customers (ranked 1st) followed by good wishes to customers on important occasions (ranked 2nd) whereas providing timely information is ranked least followed by information to customers about new wishes to customers on important occasions is reported relatively high in JKB followed by accurate informatio n to customers (ranked 2nd) whereas providing timely information to customers has been reported relatively low (ranked 4 th) followed by information about new ing timely information and good wishes to customers on important occasions have been reported relatively low by the respondents of HDFC bank whereas providing timely information is ranked relatively high (ranked 1st) followed by information to customers about new ational Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 81 Table 8: Relationship Scores on Communication S.Conflict handling The data on Table 9 provides information related to conflict expected, private banks have better conflict handling management strategies as against public sector banks as is reflected by the ranks obtained by banks on said dimension.Element wise analysis reveals that private sector banks, JKB and HDFC, are relatively high on avoidance of potential conflicts (ranked 1st) followed by solutions about customers problems (ranked 2nd) and to resolve conflicts before they create problems (ranked 3 rd).

In case Mushtaq Ahmad Bhat and Ahmad Bhat 82 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 of public sector banks, PNB scored relatively high on avoidance of potential conflicts followed by solutions to conflicts before they create problems (ranked 2nd) whereas SBI has been scored high on discussing solution about problems of customers but reported relatively low on solving conflicts before they create problems (ranked 3rd).Conclusion and Suggestions In the emerging competitive era, with little or no distinction in the product offering, it is the quality of bank customer relationships that sets apart one bank from present study measured bank customer relationships in sample banks.Exploratory Factor Analysis brought to light five interpretable dimensions of relationship marketing namely: trust, competence, commitment, communication and conflict results are in line with research findings of Nelson and Chan (2005).Results have confirmed that out of five relationship marketing dimensions, trust followed by the competence are important determinants of perceived relationship marketing dimensions in results of the study brings to light that JKB’s bank customer relation ship score is relatively high followed by HDFC bank while as the said score of PNB is relatively low followed by study further brings to fore that all banks, under reference, are relatively high on conflict handling followed by communication while as they are low on commitment followed by trust which suggests an improvement in the said dimension to improve the overall quality of bank customer relationship.

The overall bank customer relationship scores are by and large results of t his study suggests that selected banks/branches falling in the northern region have to put more efforts in the weaker dimensions (Trust and Commitment) so as to improve their overall relationship standard in order to compete with their ing relationship quality and better knowledge of how various dimensions affect the overall relationship quality would enable organisations to competently devise the relationship quality identifying strengths and weakness pertaining to the dimensions of relationship quality, banks can better allocate resources to provide enhanced services to their the awareness of relationship marketing dimensions, banks can judge how well employees perform on each dimension and should conduct frequent training programmes for employees accordingly to improve overall bank customer relationships.), Emerging Perspectives on Services Marketing ( erg (2011), “Report on Trend and Progress of Banking in India”, /rdocs/publications/pdfs/0tpbi121111 Christopher, M.(1991), “Relationship Marketing: Bringing Quality, Customer Service and Marketing Together”, Oxford: Butterworth onship Marketing in Indian Banks: An Empirical Assessment International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.(1996), “Customer Defection: A Study of the Student Market in Ireland” International Journal Of Bank Marketing, Vol.(2001), “Managing Quality: An Integrative Approach”, Prentice-Hall, Pp.

(2000), “Service Management and Marketing – A Customer Relationship Management Approach, Chichester”, Wiley and Sons.(1991), “Marketing Revisited: The Crucial Role of the Part-Time Marketer”, European Journal of Marketing, Vol.(1991), “Marketing Revisited: The Crucial Role of the Part-Time Marketers”, Gummesson, E.(1996), “Relationship Marketing and Imaginary Organisations: A Synthesis'', European Journal of Marketing, Vol.(2006), “Modelling Customer Satisfaction in Mortgage Credit Companies”, The International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol.

(1999), “Why You Should Retain Your Customers”, America’s Community Banker, Vol.(1985), “Building Customer Relationships That Last”, Harvard Business Review, Vol.(1992), “Bank and Product Selection: Hong Kong”, The International Journal of Bank Marketing, (1987), “Marketing Research: An Applied Approach”, Third Edition, McGraw Hill.(2005), “Global Marketing Management”, Oxford University Press Inc.(1994), “The Commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship Marketing”, Journal of Marketing, Vol.

(1995), “Customer Satisfaction Measurement and Management: Using the Voice of the Customer”, Thomson Executive Press, and Cincinnati, OH.(2005), “Factorial and Discriminant Analyses of the Underpinnings of Relationship Marketing and Customer Satisfaction”, International Journal of Bank Marketing, neering and Human Resources: A Case in Point?” International Journal of Bank Marketing, q Ahmad Bhat and Ahmad Bhat 84 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.(1990), “Guidelines for Conducting Service Quality Research”, Marketing Research, , Boston”, Harvard Business School Sasser (1990), “Zero Defections: Quality Comes to Services.(1998), “Evaluating Relationships: Are Satisfaction and Quality Enough?”, International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol.(1993), “Customer Satisfaction, Customer Retention and Market Share”, Journal of Retailing, os, (1994), “Managing Customer Relationship for Profit: The Dynamics of Relationship Quality”, International Journal of Service Industry Management, Relationship Marketing”, International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol.

(1992), “The Changing Role of Marketing in the Corporations”, Journal of Marketing, Vol.(2001), “A Framework for Customer Relationship Management”, California Management Review, Vol.(2000), “Managing Customer Satisfaction: A Best Practice Perspective”, The TQM Magazine, , and Gremler, (2006), “Services Marketing”, Integrating Customer Focus Across the Firm, New York.International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.

2, July 2013 85 Factors Affecting Milk Market Outlet Choices of Urban and Peri-urban Dairy Producers in Welmera Woreda, West Shewa zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia Tadele Mamo and Tewodros Tefera Abstract: This paper is aimed to examine factors affecting milk market outlet choices of urban and peri - urban dairy producers in Welmera woreda, west Shewa zone of Oromia regional state, data were collected from 120 dairy producing urban and peri-urban households in and around Holetta towns in Welmera woreda from May to June in common descriptive statistics and econometric models were employed to analyze the collected econometric model used was the conditional (fixed effect) logit model.

The result shows that four main alternative milk market outlets were identified, namely; consumers, cooperatives, hotels/restaurants/cafeterias and traders/ descriptive result shows that 10985L (5.4%) of the annual milk produced were sold to consumers, cooperatives, hotels/restaurants/ cafeterias and traders/processors, conditional fixed effect model results show that , compared to selecting a consumer market, the probability of choosing a cooperative and traders/processors market was higher among households who considered price offered by these markets as higher than other market ed to choosing the consumer market, the probability of selecting traders/processors was lower among households whose educational background was high while households who owned smaller number of dairy cows, larger number of children, larger land size and who produce higher quantity of milk are found to have a higher chance of selecting traders/processors as compared to the consumer market.Therefore, different demographic, socio-economic and institutional factors should be analyzed when dairy producers’ market outlet choice issues are considered.Key words: market outlet, dairy, conditional (fixed effect) logit, Welmera 1.Introduction sector to the total and agricultural Growth Domestic Product (GDP) reported differently by various instance, Halderman (2004) estimated the contribution of the sector to the total GDP and agricultural GDP ranges 12-16% and 30-35%, respectively while FAO (2004) estimated the contribution to be ing to MoARD (2007) estimation, th e sector contributes 16%, 27-30% and 13% of total GDP, agricultural GDP and export earnings, e the variation in estimation of its contribution to the country’s economy, li vestock is an integral part of the farming system and vital to the livelihoods of the population are either directly or indirectly dependent on the sector (Azage et industry is an important integral part of the livestock sector in Ethiopia.

The CSA Report (2010), estimated dairy cows and milking cows to be 6.6 million heads, respectively while the estimated number of goats and camels used for milk are 659,664 and 239,708 heads, respectively in 2009.Who can help me write custom research paper building online single spaced 59 pages / 16225 words academic a4 (british/european) The report also indicated that the net milk production (excluding milks sucked by calves) from cows and camels in rural area during the year 2009 were estimated to be 2.94 billion and 150 million litres, respectively.Although dairy production classifications diff er across the country, the basis for the Tadele Mamo and Tewodros Tefera 86 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol This considerable research effort is starting to give results and recent reports show aof conservation of protein clefts in terms of location and boundary residues.

comparative models (built with the standard modelling software MODELLERapproximations implicit in the different steps of the structure building process.Although dairy production classifications diff er across the country, the basis for the Tadele Mamo and Tewodros Tefera 86 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 classification is based on location, level of market-orientation, scale and intensity of production or the combination of instance, Azage and Alemu (1998) classified the dairy production system of the country into four namely, pastoral and agro-pastoral, smallholder crop–livestock mixed system, urban and peri-urban, and intensive dairy farming Write me a building research paper Senior double spaced Writing from scratch instance, Azage and Alemu (1998) classified the dairy production system of the country into four namely, pastoral and agro-pastoral, smallholder crop–livestock mixed system, urban and peri-urban, and intensive dairy farming.(1998) classified it into three as traditional smallholders, privatized state farms and urban - peri-urban systems based on level of market orientation, scale and intensity of production while Tsehay (2001) categorized into three namely, urban, peri -urban and rural production system based on location Write me a building research paper Senior double spaced Writing from scratch Academic.(1998) classified it into three as traditional smallholders, privatized state farms and urban - peri-urban systems based on level of market orientation, scale and intensity of production while Tsehay (2001) categorized into three namely, urban, peri -urban and rural production system based on al system; highlands smallholder crop-livestock system; urban and peri-urban system and intensive commercial system.

Urban and peri-urban dairy production system is common in all of the dairy production system classification .Urban and peri-urban dairy production system is common in all of the dairy production system production system is a system operated in and around major cities of the is characterized by using improved breeds, purchased feeds and enjoying the high demand of increasing urban population (Asaminew, 2007; Belete et serves as the largest sources of milk for consumers by supplying about 71% of the milk produced to consumers in Addis Ababa/regional towns through either delivering to consumers or consumers may collect it at the farm gate (Tsehay, 2001).However, its proportion to the national milk production is almost er with the intensive dairy production systems, it accounts only about 2% of the total milk production of the country (Belete et ies are becoming significant (Smith and Olaloku, 1998).It creates employment opportunity and increases income of low income urban families or enables the employed, poorly paid, middle class urban dwellers to earn additional income.It also contributes to the food security of low income urban also contributes in balancing the supply and demand of food in the city on more global capture the growing demand of dairy products resulted from alarming rate of urbanization, urban and peri-urban dairy producers have to be informed about different market outlets available for them and to make informed decision to choose among alternative market ing factors affecting alternative milk market choice of the urban and peri -urban dairy producers become an important research aim of this paper, therefore, was to identify factors influencing the choice of alternative channels of milk by dairy producers in west Shewa zone of Oromia regional state of Ethiopia.

The Study Area The study is conducted in Welmera woreda of West Shewa zone in Oromia regional state of a woreda is one of the eight administrative units of the Oromia special zones surrounding Addis Ababa.The woreda shares borders in the east with Burayu town, in the west with Ejere woreda, in the north with Sululta woreda, and in the south with Sebeta Hawas a, the capital town of the study woreda, is located at 40 Km West of Addis Ababa on the main road of Addis to phical, Welmera woreda is located at 8050'-9015'N and 38025'-38045'E having an area coverage of of its areas are high lands ( Dega) and mid highlands (Weyna Dega) with an altitude of 2060m.The area is characterized by bimodal rainfall known as belg Factors Affecting Milk Market Outlet Choices of Urban and Peri-urban Dairy Producers in Welmera Woreda International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 87 (usually from December to April) and summer season (meher) which ranges from June to meher season rainfall accounts more than 80% of the annual average annual temperature of the area is 24 OC while the highest and lowest average annual temperature is 27 OC and 0.According to CSA (2008), the total population of Welmera woreda including the Holetta town woreda in 2007 was 114,607 of which 24% and 76% reside in urban and rural areas, respectively.

The livelihoods of the rural population depend on agriculture and allied activities while the urban dwellers drive their income from governmental, nongovernmental and self agriculture of the area is characterized by crop-livestock mixed farming in the rural area while some urban farmers keep dairy cows in small and medium scales.Besides, some specialized dairy farms operate in the r, the agricultural land is being replaced by private owned flower farms at alarming rate in peri-urban , wheat and teff are the main cereal crops grown in the area while faba bean and field peas are the very commonly grown pulse tly, different improved potato varieties that have a yield potential of more than 300 quintals per hectare are becoming popular crop which used as food items and cash crops in the ock production consists of cattle, sheep, goats, equines and poultry.Dairy farm is carried out in the area both in large scale dairy production system for commercial purpose and in smallholder farming subsistence of the smallholder dairy farms keep indigenous r, some farmers are using crossbreds of Boran-Friesian cow supplied by Holetta Agricultural Research Centre (HARC).Most commercial dairy farms use exotic and crossbred dairy cows.Five primary dairy cooperatives and one dairy production and marketing cooperative union are operating in the er, dairy development institutions such as Holetta agricultural research centre livestock research, Holetta Cattle genetics improvement farm and Holetta ATVET are operating in the area to improve the dairy Type, Sources and Methods of Data Collection 2.

Data Type and Sources Both secondary and primary data were collected from different p rimary data were collected from selected sample dairy producers while the s secondary data were collected from different offices of governmental and non-governmental sources located in the study er, regular and statistical reports of the ministry of agriculture and rural development, central statistics authority, ministry of finance and economic development and different publications were used.Method of data collection The primary data collection was done through a structured questionnaire prepared for the sample interview of the dairy producers was conducted by degree holders who are fluent in local language and have got training on the content of the questionnaire and interview techniques.Close supervision and day to day check up was done by the questionnaire was pre -tested before the actual conduct of the interview using dairy producer households identified for the secondary data were collected from different documents available and from Mamo and Tewodros Tefera 88 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Size and Sampling Techniques A multistage sampling technique was used to determine the dairy producers sample , the Welmera woreda was purposively selected for the following three main reasons.The first reason is that Welmera woreda has a huge potential for dairy production.The second is that it is the place where urban and Peri-urban dairy production system is widely y, the woreda is expected to participate in dairy processing and value addition activities as it is located at a near distance to the capital city and hence near for facilities and ing the woreda selection, determining the peri-urban areas to decide on the sample frame was the next this study peri-urban areas are limited to rural kebeles situated at a distance ranging from 3-10km radius of the Holetta town while urban dairy producers are those who are found in peri-urban kebeles were randomly selected from peri-urban areas.

Third, the households who own dairy cows were identified from the households list available at each y, representative samples were selected from each kebele based o n probability proportional to sample households were selected using systematic random addition, 28 urban dairy producers were randomly selected and uently, 120 total sample households were selected as shown in Table 1.Table 1: Sample households’ composition Source: Own summary Both descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, t -test and chi-square and econometric model were used to analyze the collected , graphs and maps were also employed to present the results ational Journal of Management and Development Studies, ptive statistics tests and graphs in the process of comparing or presenting socioeconomic characteristics of dairy producer etric analysis The choice of economic analysis depends on the nature of research objectives and the hypothesis to be ional logit (Green, 2003), which has the ability to examine unordered choice decisions , is found to be appropriate in our ional (Fixed effect) logit model The rational economic agents choose what maximizes their profit or satisfaction given alternative situations from which different choices value chain actors including the producer make choices among alternative outlets like selling to cooperatives, processers, traders, or final consumers.In the process, they make a decision to sell or not to sell to different milk and milk product outlets (e.sell through cooperatives or not; to middlemen or not etc).Hence, the general class of discrete choice model is the commonly used model in this model ensures that the estimated probabilities will lie between logical limit 0 and 1.

There are some conditions that force actors to choice one specific instance, dairy producers who are members of cooperatives usually prefer to sell to cooperatives because of the patronage basis nature of the dividends offered by leads us to use the conditional logit (fixed effects) choice model of McFadden (1973) to analyze the choic e of different market outlets and to identify their a set of unordered choices 1, 2, --- T, Yit indicates the choices actually chosen by individual i, so that Yit =1 if individual i chose choice t and Yit =0 for t' ≠ t.According to Green (2003), the model to be estimated is depicted as: Prob(Yi=t)= (2) Where Xit are attributes of the choices tfor the ith individual and Wit are attributes of the individual i, which are interacted with Cit, choice from among T for individual i.In the absence of attributes of the choices (and so the absence of the independent variables X it), then the model is exactly the same as the multinomial on economic theories and empirical findings of studies conducted so far, several continuous and discrete variables that explain producer’s alternative market access are ingly, the following variables are constructed: 90 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 Dependent variable Market Access (MA): it is a dummy variable which represents the household’s choice among alternative market outlets and takes a value of one for a household who chooses any one of the alternatives and zero otherwise.Independent variables Age of household head: is a continuous variable and measured in is a proxy measure of experiences of value chain ore, age of value chain actors is hypothesized to affect milk and milk products market participation and alternative market outlet choice of household head: is dummy variable takes a value of 1 if male and 0 if are better than females in milk and milk products market entry decision and milk alternative market outlet choice because they are more mobile and near for access to information.

Therefore, in this study, being male household head is expected to affect milk market participation decision and alternative market outlet choice ion level of household head: is a continuous variable and is measured in years of formal schooling of value chain ion is believed to improve the knowledge of the household to increase milk market decision and alternative market access choice.(1999) found that education positively affected the dairy household milk entry decision and marketed milk volume.Similarly, Gizachew (2005) and Rehima (2006) showed that formal education is positively related to household market participation and marketed ore, in this study, formal education is hypothesized to affect milk and market products participation decision and alternative market outlet choice ence ratio of household: it is a continuous variable that indicates the number of household members whose ages are less than 14 years and greater than 64 this study, dependence ratio is hypothesized as to affect milk and butter market participation and alternative market outlet choice size: it is a continuous variable that shows the number of family in a household.

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Large family can manage large number of cows and hence increases volume of ichael (2008) found the positive relationship between family size and volume of milk supplied to the this study, it is hypothesized as to affect milk and milk products market participation and alternative market outlet choice with members aged less than 6 years old: is a continuous variable and measured in number of children less than 6 years in a family that are expected to consume , it is hypothesized to have inverse impact on choice of alternative milk and butter market.

Land size of household: is a continuous variable measured in hip of more land encourages farmers and other value chain actors to keep cows and produce milk and its value added products for consumption and surplus for this study, it is hypothesized to influence mi lk market participation and alternative market outlet choice ce to market access: is distance (in Km) dairy producers to travel to the nearest alternative closer the dairy market, the lesser would be the transportation charge s, loss due to spoilage and better access to market information and facilities.

In addition, near to market access encourages Factors Affecting Milk Market Outlet Choices of Urban and Peri-urban Dairy Producers in Welmera Woreda International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol Results 1 - 16 of 30 - building research paper 46 pages / 12650 words standard asa   How to buy custom research paper building business us letter size harvard   assured procurement and minimum support price programme will ensure a   to order an ecology lab report 26 pages 7150 words college nbsp me with my  .In addition, near to market access encourages Factors Affecting Milk Market Outlet Choices of Urban and Peri-urban Dairy Producers in Welmera Woreda International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.

2, July 2013 91 producers to sell raw milks than processing it and hence discourages value ore, in this study, distance from nearest alternative market access is hypothesized to be negatively related to market participation decision and alternative market outlet farm experience: is a continuous variable measured in years.It is hypothesised to have a positive relationship with choosing the right milk and butter market of milking cows (crossbred and local breed) and milk yield (L): are continuous variables measured in number of milking cow owned by dairy producers and in litters, are hypothesized to positively influence the entry to milk and milk product market and alternative market of payment: it is a dummy variable that takes the value one if mode of sale is on cash or on advance basis and zero if it is on this study it is hypothesized that mode of payment to affect market participation decision and alternative market choice positively Best websites to buy a college functional analysis homework Premium double spaced 2 days Freshman.It is hypothesised to have a positive relationship with choosing the right milk and butter market of milking cows (crossbred and local breed) and milk yield (L): are continuous variables measured in number of milking cow owned by dairy producers and in litters, are hypothesized to positively influence the entry to milk and milk product market and alternative market of payment: it is a dummy variable that takes the value one if mode of sale is on cash or on advance basis and zero if it is on this study it is hypothesized that mode of payment to affect market participation decision and alternative market choice positively.Access to extension service: this variable is measured as a dummy variable taking a value of 1 if the value chain actors have access to milk and milk products marketing extension service and 0 is expected that extension service widens the actor's knowledge with regard to the use of improved dairy marketing technologies and has positive impact on milk and milk product s market participation decision and alternative market outlet choice Best websites to buy a college functional analysis homework Premium double spaced 2 days Freshman.Access to extension service: this variable is measured as a dummy variable taking a value of 1 if the value chain actors have access to milk and milk products marketing extension service and 0 is expected that extension service widens the actor's knowledge with regard to the use of improved dairy marketing technologies and has positive impact on milk and milk product s market participation decision and alternative market outlet choice.(2002) identified that extension visit is directly related to dairy household production, value addition and , access to extension visits is hypothesized to positively contribute to choosing alternative market outlets.

Access to market information: value chain actors marketing decisions are based on market price ore, it is hypothesized that market information is positively related to mark et participation and alternative market outlet , butter and cheese price offered in alternative market outlets: is a continuous variable measured in is hypothesized to have a positive influence on an alternative market outlet choice.T he above variables and their descriptions are summarized in Table 2.Characteristics of dairy producers based on outlet choice Dairy producers in the study area have four alternative market , direct sell to co nsumers, to cooperatives, sell to hotels/restaurants/cafeterias and sell to traders/ processors.From the total of 120 sample households, 63 of them sell unprocessed raw milk to different milk market is only one trader that purchases milk from producers and three processors in the study , it is included to processors rather than treating it as a separate alternative milk market 3 shows that 19%, 21%, 16% and 44% of milk sellers sold to consumers, cooperatives, hotels/restaurants/cafeterias and traders/processors, than 60% of marketed milk was sold to traders/processors while the smallest proportion (5.4%) was directly sold to the individual consumers in the study of the dairy producers that sell to consumers and cooperatives had market (price) information.

92 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 The mode of payment was totally in credit that was paid twice a month in the case of cooperatives and traders/processors market while both cash and credit sale options are available at consumers and hotels/restaurants/cafeterias.Variables *milk collection centre 94 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 Choice of alternative milk market outlets The conditional (fixed effect) logit model was used to assess producers’ decision to whom to sell milk and butter among alternative market are four alternative market outlets in the study are: traders/processors, hotels/restaurants/cafeterias, cooperatives and consumers.Selling to traders/processors, selling to hotels/restaurants/cafeterias, and selling to cooperatives are included explicitly whereas selling to consumers was used as a results of conditional logit depicted in Table 4 shows that compared to selecting a consumer market outlet, the probability of choosing both cooperative and traders/processors market outlets was higher among households who considered price offered by cooperatives and traders/processor s as higher than other market result, therefore, implies that availing competitive milk market outlets that offer fair price to farmers will have a potential positive effect in milk marketing ed to choosing the comparator consumers’ market outlet, the probability of selecting traders/processors was lower among households whose educational background was might be due to the fact that educated households are better in choosing a market that maximizes profit and hence choose a consumer market.

Contrary to expectation, households who owned smaller number of dairy cows and larger number of children of less than age of six years are found to have a higher likelihood of selecting traders/processors as compared to the consumer unexpected result for the former might be because owning large number of cows with less productive (low milk yield) as most of them rear local this case, the decisive factor is the annual milk yield rather than the number of cows interpretation for the latter might be due to the fact that having more children means allocating significant time to care them and less time to search alternative consumer market at farther distance and hence forced to select the nearer alternative r, compared to consumers’ milk market outlet, the probability of choosing traders/processors was higher among households who owned larger land size and produce higher annual milk production.The results suggest that owning large land si ze is suitable for milk production in large quantity and supply to an alternative market that demanded higher quantity with relatively better ore, policies that support access to more land intensive use of the existing land and improving the productivity of milking cows rather than owning larger number of cows would play a great role in milk marketing and hence dairy sector s Affecting Milk Market Outlet Choices of Urban and Peri-urban Dairy Producers in Welmera Woreda International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 95 Table 4: Results of conditional logistic regression on choice of milk market outlet (customer, cooperatives, hotels/cafes, traders/processors) Numbers in brackets indicate robust standard errors.Variable 96 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, sions and Recommendations The dairy producers in the study area have four alternative milk market outlets from which the respondent can choice their : consumers, cooperatives, hotels/restaurants/cafeterias and traders/processors.The majority of the milk was sold to tra ders/processor while the consumers receive least amount of milk sold directly from estimation results of the conditional model show that compared to selecting a consumer market, the probability of choosing a cooperative and traders/processors market was higher among households who considered price offered by these markets are higher than other the other hands, compared to choosing the consumers market, the probability of selecting traders/processors was lower among households whos e educational background was also indicate that households who owned smaller number of dairy cows and larger number of children are found to have a higher likelihood of selecting traders/processors as compared to the consumer r, compared to consumer market, the probability of choosing traders/processors was higher among households who owned larger land size and produce higher annual milk.

Therefore, different demographic, socio-economic and institutional factors should be analyzed when dairy producers’ market outlet choice issues are nces Alemu Gebre-Wold, Mengistu Alemayehu, Sendros Demeke, Siyoum Bediye and Alemu : Proceedings of The Role of Village Dairy Co -operatives in Dairy Development: Prospects for improving Dairy in Ethiopia, 22 –24 April 1998, Pp.73-81, Ministry of Agriculture, Addis Ababa, tion, handling, traditional processing practices and quality of milk in Bahir Dar milkshed Area, Ethiopia.Thesis, School of Graduate Studies, Haramaya University, Haramaya, dings of 5th national conference of Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP), 15 – 17 May 1997, Pp.Azage Tegegne, Berhanu Gebremedhin and Hoekstra D.Livestock input supply and service provision in Ethiopia: Challenges and opportunities for market-oriented development.

IPMS (Improving Productivity and Market Success) of Ethiopian Farmers Project Working Paper 20.production and marketing systems and opportunities for market-orientation in Fogera woreda, Amhara region, (Improving Productivity and Market Success) of Ethiopian Farmers Project Working Paper (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya.International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 97 CSA (Central Statistical Agency).Summary and statistical report of 2007 population and housing ltural sample survey report on Livestock and Livestock Characteristics (Private peasant holdings).

FDRE Statistical Bulletin 468, Addis Ababa: (Food and Agriculture Organization).FAO Livestock Information, Sector Analysis and Policy Branch./ag/AGAinfo/sector briefs/lsb (Accessed on July 2011).Dairy marketing patterns and efficiency: The Case of Ada’ Liben District, eastern , School of Graduate Studies, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Political Economy of Pro-poor Livestock policy-Making in -Poor Livestock Policy Initiative Working Paper 19, FAO: Rome./ag/againf/en/pplpi/docarc/ (Accessed on 9 June 2011).

Expanding market participation among smallholder livestock producers: A collection of studies employing Gibbs sampling and data from the Ethiopian - economics and Policy Research Working Paper 48.International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Nairobi, ctions costs, cooperatives and milk market development in the Ethiopian (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development).Livestock Development Master Plan marketing chains analysis: The case of Alaba and Siraro Districts, Southern , School of Graduate Studies, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia.International Development Research Centre, Dakar, Senegal and International Livestock Research Institute, Addis Ababa, - /dspace/10625/22320/1/ (Accessed on July 2011).Tadele Mamo and Tewodros Tefera 98 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.

Dairy development for the resource II: Kenya and Ethiopia dairy development case (Pro-poor Livestock Policy Initiative) Working Paper -scale milk marketing and processing in Ethiopia.) Smallholder dairy production and marketing—Opportunities and dings of a South–South workshop, held at NDDB, Anand, India, 13–16 March 2001, Pp.NDDB (National Dairy Development Board), Anand, India, and ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Marketing Chain Analysis: The case of Shashemane, Hawassa and Dale Districts Milk Shed, Southern Ethiopia.Best website to purchase an research paper building single spaced academic asa premium Thesis, School of Graduate Studies, Haramaya University, Haramaya, tion analysis on Job Satisfaction and Motivation of Employees in Indian I.Jaya Abstract:The human resource of an organization is the most valuable assets to it .

Jaya Abstract:The human resource of an organization is the most valuable assets to it.The productive capacity of a satisfied and motivated employee will be good and also satisfaction formulates the employee more considerate and concerned for the mission of motivating an employee is a herculean task in I Jump to Research writing desk order form - Our essaysand research papers are guaranteedWords 45 Page(s)/12375 Words 46 Page(s)/12650us letter size standard double spaced If you need tohow building and spaces nbsp research enhr 2017;thesis proposal 20 pages / 5500 words asa 10 days.The mission of motivating an employee is a herculean task in I.Industry faces the problem of winning the cooperation from the employees which stresses the employees and a ffects their job employee who lacks job satisfaction is stressed and demotivated to perform in the organization /case-study/ employee who lacks job satisfaction is stressed and demotivated to perform in the the same way, the low motivation of an employee also badly affects the job satisfaction of an employee.

This study aims at analysing the relationship between job satisfaction and motivation of employees in I.

The primary data on the varied dimensions of job satisfaction and motivation were collected through a suitably framed ation and regression analysis was carried out to study the effect of work motivation on job satisfaction of employees.The results of the correlation affirm the positive relationship between job satisfaction and r regression results strongly denote the relationship between both the management should frame policies to satisfy the financial and non-financial needs of the employee, provide a congenial work environment and also chalk down appropriate organisational policies to ensure job satisfaction to the employee which will motivate them to perform ds: Perception analysis, Job Satisfaction, Motivation, I.Industry Introduction The human resource of an organization is the most valuable assets to productive capacity of a satisfied and motivated employee will be good and also s atisfaction formulates the employee more considerate and concerned for the satisfaction is a state of emotional gladness, results from the achievement of the goals that one get through performing his part of contribution inside an mission of motivating an employee is a herculean task in I.Industry faces the problem of winning the cooperation from the employees which stresses the employees and affects their job satisfaction.An emplo yee who lacks job satisfaction is stressed and demotivated to perform in the the same way, the low motivation of an employee also badly affects the job satisfaction of an tion could be described as a driving force that makes people willingly want to put in their best in what they concept of motivation can never threaten people to work s can create fears and resentment for the employees which are li kely to be ineffective in the long run.

Rather it is better that people should be motivated as it is believed that the driving force which results from motivation will compel people to put in their best out of ledgment and awarding even a simple thank you may be enough which can build difference in employee’s work tion leads to an increase employee’s performance into other level and eventually the positive effect S.Jaya 100 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 goes toward company’s study aims at analysing the relationship between job satisfaction and motivation of employees in I.Review of Literature Velnampy (2008) opines that job satisfaction provides a positive influence on the performance of the has increased the job involvement leading to high performance which in turn makes the employees motivated and committed to the he has concluded that both the variables job satisfaction and performance of the employee are mutually & Joshi (2008) examines the relationship between the job contentment and work inspiration for the employees in their study.Satisfied employees are able to perform well leading to high productivity.

As the time span of the employee at workplace is longer, job satisfaction is very essential for onship between job satisfaction and motivation to the psychological environment has a key role to play in deciding the motivational level of an employee at work and Pandey (2005) points out the important factors for employee motivation namely the emotional attachment and loyalty which binds the employee to continue in the same employee also derives motivation from the other prerequisites and monetary benefits from the organization.motivation and job satisfaction of employees working at companies in different industrial are no specific studies on this issue as far as Information Technology sector’s employees are study is an attempt towards fulfilling this research ives of the study To measure the level of job satisfaction and motivation as perceived by the respondent -employees on the varied determinants of job satisfaction in I.To analyze the relationship between motivation and job satisfaction of employees in I.Methodology The present study is confined to employees of Information Technology Industry.Multi stage random sampling was adopted for the present the study is confined to Chennai city, the study is area the first phase all the 13 companies listed in the BSEIT Index were selected for the the second stage 7 companies with a life span of more than 10 years having branches in Chennai were sample size of the present study has been fixed at 150 employees by app lying appropriate sampling formula.

International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 101 This study being based on survey method, primary data on the varied dimensions of job satisfaction and motivation were collected through a suitably framed s the responses received on the questionnaire, informal discussions were held with them to get insight on various matters connected with Job satisfaction and collected have been presented in tabular ptive statistics including mean, median and standard deviation, correlation and regression analysis was carried out to study the relationship between motivation and job satisfaction of s & Discussions applied to find out the relationship between job satisfaction and 1: Descriptive Statistics Table 2 presents the correlation analysis of Job Satisfaction and Motivation which helps in good relationship between the employees and relationship between the aforesaid variables is high (0.In other words there is significant relationship between the results of the regression analysis of job satisfaction and motivation are presented in the Table 3.The coefficient of determination (R2) indicates that 71 per cent of the variation in the motivation has been explained by the variable included in the equation job coefficient is positive and the calculated regression coefficient for the independent variable is 3.Jaya 102 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.

2, July 2013 unit increase in the variable job satisfaction, there would be a corresponding increase in motivation by 3.As per statistics it can be stated that there is a strong relationship at 1% level of significance as p - value It also analysed the relationship between both the variables which will help the policy makers in designing appropriate human resource polices to have a satisfied and motivated work results of the correlation affirm the positive relationship between job satisfaction and motivation.Further the results of the regression analysis strongly denote the relationship between both the variables.The management should frame policies to satisfy the financial and non-financial needs of the employee, provide a congenial work environment and also chalk down appropriate organisational policies to ensure job satisfaction to the employee which will motivate them to perform the study is based on perception, there is no guarantee that same perception may be prevailing in future too, owin g to changes in the organisational climate, changes in the policy and other environment variables References Firms: A Comparative l of Small Business Management, April 1994, p.The State of the Art in Small Business and e Publishing Company, Vermont, USA Kovach, K.

What Motivates Employees? Workers and Supervisors Give Different Answers .International Journal of Management and Development Studies, is job satisfaction? Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 4, 309– y of Management Review, 29(3), ing the effect of job satisfaction on ational Journal of Value-Based Management, 12, strative Behavior: A Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organizations, 5th Attitude and Employees Performance of Public Sector Organizations in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka.Exploring the Nomological Map of Public Service Motivation Concept, University of North Carolina at Charlotte.104 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 The Determinants of Corporate Leverage: A Study on Indian Chemical Sector R.

Vijayalakshmi Abstract: The success of any firm depends on the effective utilization of funds principal sources of finance of a firm are owners’ equity and the borrowed ge plays an imperative role in designing the capital structure.Chemical sector is a capital intensive sector, where greater emphasis has been given in framing the capital this backdrop, this empirical paper makes an attempt to identify and analyse the determinants of leverage of Indian chemical sector.A panel data approach has been applied to analyse the study reveals that th e variables, namely, profitability and size are the key determinants of leverage of Indian chemical uction Every organization needs funds to carry out its operations irrespective of its size.The funds are mobilized through various modes, such as, issue of shares, debentures, and borrowings from financial institutions and banks for meeting long term short term requirements are financed through issue of commercial papers, short term bank borrowings, trade credit, advances etc… The performance and survival of a firm depend on the choice of the source of funds and its effective de cision on the composition of funds, otherwise, known as ‘capital structure’ is an essential decision, which influences the risk and return of the ge is an indicator of relationship between owners’ funds and borrowed fund.A proper mix of debt and equity would determine the path to increase the shareholder value.

Firms have to analyse the factors determining the leverage before framing its capital this backdrop, the study makes an attempt to identify and analyse the determinants of leverage of Indian chemical sector for the period 1995-96 to al sector The Indian chemical sector is one of the oldest sectors in is the backbone of industrial and agricultural chemical industry comprises of basic chemicals and its products, petrochemicals, fertilizers, paints and varnishes, soaps, perfumes and toiletries and pharmaceuticals.It is one of the most diversified sectors of Indian has covered more than 70,000 commercial industry has undergone a structural change, with an increasing attention towards modernization, product innovations, brand building, customer satisfaction and environmental friendliness.87 per cent of the industrial sector by chemical industry has ranked 12th largest in terms of volume and 3rd largest in (2004) has examined the effect of different explanatory variables of capita l has investigated the micro variables which affect the capital structure of a firm with reference to relevant capital structure theories.A sample of 31 companies has been selected for the has applied The Determinants of Corporate Leverage A Study on Indian Chemical Sector International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 105 multiple regression models to test the theoretical relation between the financial leverage and the characteristics of the has taken financial leverage as a dependent variable and the seven explanatory variables, such as, size of the firm, business risk, growth rate, earnings r ate, dividend payout, debt service capacity, degree of operating leverage, as its determinants.

The study has concluded that the three variables, such as, corporate size, growth rate and profitability have played a significant role as determinants of financial ad Rafiq, Asif iqbal and Muhammad Afiq (2008) have made an attempt to determine the capital structure of chemical firms.A sample of 26 firms for a period of 10 years (1993 -2004) has been taken from Karachi Stock Exchange volume for panel data have used profitability, tangibility of assets, size of the firm, growth, income variation, and non debt tax shield as explanatory variables to determine the degree of leverage (dependent variable).They have employed pooled regression analysis to analyse the determinants of leverage.They have found that all the variables are statistically significant except for study has revealed that the relationship between profitability and leverage in the chemical industry has followed in pecking order study has concluded that retained earnings have not been sufficient for growing firms and the debt financing may be the only option for future n Liu and Jing Ren and Yan Zhuang (2009) have identified the corporate financial structure determinants of IT industry in have taken a sample of 92 IT companies from China Stock Exchange.The study has covered a period of 4 years from 2004 to ratio has been taken as a dependent variable and the explanatory variables, such as, size, profitability, tangibility, liquidity, growth and growth opportunities have been data method has been employed to find out the result has revealed that the explanatory variables, such as, profitability, liquidity, growth rate, growth opportunities have been negatively related with leverage and size has been positively related to leverage.

The results have supported the pecking order theory and trade off hypotheses.Theoretical framework The dependent variables taken to represent the leverage are Long term debt ratio, Short term debt ratio and Total debt to asset term debt (LTD) It measures the extent to which long term debt supports the firm is an indicator of the long term solvency of a term debt (STD) to which short term debt supports in financing the firm’s term debt to total assets = Short term debt / Total assets R.Vijayalakshmi 106 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 Total debt to total assets (TDTA) It indicates what portion of firms’ total assets has been financed from borrowed helps to measure the financial risk of a firm.

Total debt consists of long term debt and short term debt ratio = Total debt / Total assets Determinants of leverage considered to study the determination of the leverage Profitability Profitability plays an essential role in leverage represents the profit earning capacity of a this study the profitability has been measured as follows Profitability = PBIT net of P&E / Total assets Size Firm size is one of the important factors in determining the company’s level of lly, large size firms are expected to have higher debt levels because they need heavy investment.

Size of the firm has been measured either by natural logarithm of total assets or this study the size has been measured as follows: Tangibility Firms having a large amount of fixed assets can easily raise debt at cheaper rates because of the collateral value of those fixed companies with a higher ratio of tangibe assets have an incentive to borrow more because loans are available to them at relatively cheaper study uses the following ratio to measure the tangibilty Tangibility = Net fixed assets / Total assets Non debt tax shield (NDTS) The study has used the ratio of depreciation plus amortization to total assets to measure the non debt tax Growth is a positive indicator, which may be denoted either in terms of investment in total assets or in terms of sales potential.This study has considered growth of firms in terms of investment in assets, as the manufacturing firms belong to core sector requiring heavy investment in = Growth rate in total assets The Determinants of Corporate Leverage A Study on Indian Chemical Sector International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 107 Business Risk (BR) It measures the degree of earning i (2002) states that the debt involves a fixed obligation of periodic payment, and highly leveraged firms are prone to financial distress cost.The study uses the Standard deviation of PBIT net of P&E as a measure of rd deviation of PBIT net of P&E Liquidity To measure the short term risk of the firms the liquidity ra tio has been included in the with greater liquid assets may discharge their short term obligations ty = Current assets / Current liabilities and provision Free cash flow to total assets (FCFTA) Free cash flow represents the cash that a company is able to generate after laying out the money required to maintain or expand its asset free cash flow is negative, it could be a sign that a company is making large investments.It these investments earn a high return, the strateg y has the potential to pay off in the long of borrowing (COB) It is the rate of return expected by the supplier of debt interest paid for the total borrowing is known as cost of general, it might be expected that a company with huge amount of borrowings in its capital structure, will enjoy a lower cost of borrowing Cost of borrowing = Interest paid / Total Borrowing Tax rate (TR) Firms with higher effective tax rate are expected to use more debt to avail higher tax shield of net of P&E Tax rate = 1- Theories of capital structure The capital structure is one of the most important debatable issues in the field of finance.

The Modigliani and Miller (1958) have made the first attempt to explain the relationship between capital structure and the firm capital structure has b een revisited by many theories, such as, pecking order theory, static trade off theory, agency theory and signaling lakshmi 108 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 Signaling Theory The Signaling Theory has been originally developed by Leland and Pyle (1976) and Rose (1977).According to Leland and Pyle the value of a company is positively correlated with the managerial ownership and each change noticed on the level of the managerial ownership results in a modification in the financial policy followed by a new value of the has argued that the higher is the managerial ownership in the capital of the company, the larger is the debt strong ownership is highly recognized by the bond holders and signals confidence in the future investments.According to Rose (1977), the managers have been informed about the company’s profitability than external know the true distribution of the company returns, but investors do has argued that higher financial leverage can be used by the managers to signal an optimist ic future of the company since the debt is a contractual obligation to repay both principal and has stressed that the usage of more debt in the capital structure is a good signal of the managers’ optimism about their companies.Static-trade off Theory According to Static trade off model, the tax benefit – bankruptcy cost trade off models have predicted that companies seek to maintain an optimal capital structure by balancing the benefits and the costs of debt (DeAngelo and Masulis, 1980).

The benefits include the tax shield whereas the costs include expected financial distress theory has predicted that companies maintain an optimum capital structure where the marginal benefit of debt equals the marginal implication of the t rade-off model is that companies have target leverage and they adjust their leverage towards the target over data has been collected from PROWESS 3.1 version maintained by Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy Pvt study has covered a period of 15 financial years from post-liberalisation era, namely, 1995 -1996 to 2009- of analysis Panel data set has both cross section dimension and time series particular, the same cross - sectional units (e.individuals, companies, firms, cities, states) are observed over is different The Determinants of Corporate Leverage A Study on Indian Chemical Sector International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol., pooling independent cross sections across time.

, Fixed Effect Model (FE) and Random Effect model (RE) are available for panel the three models (pooled OLS, FE and RE) have been applied in the study and further, two tests have been carried out to decide the appropriateness of these three lly, the Lagrange multiplier (LM) test has been applied to find the existence of panel effect in the classical model (Pooled OLS) and the RE model are compared and when there is no panel effect, the pooled OLS will be chosen for further analysis.Otherwise, the RE model will be chosen for the next step of a second step, the RE model is compared with FE model using Hausman Specification test and the appropriate model is chosen for further analysis based on the significance of the chi-square s and Discussions Long term Debt ratio influence on long term debt ratio: H0:“The variables, namely, profitability, size, tangibility, NDTS, growth, BR, liquidity, FCFTA, COB and TR do not have a significant influence on LTD ratio” It is discernible from the Table 1 that the sign of the regression coefficients have been similar in all the three R2values have shown a moderate correlation between the selected independent variables and the LTD ratio under the Pooled OLS model and the existence of a low corr elation under the FE and RE F value and Wald chi-square value have depicted a significant correlation between the selected independent variables and the LTD ratio.The LM test has revealed that the value of chi -square (996.11) is significant at one per cent showing the existence of panel , the RE model has been more effective than the pooled OLS results of Hausman test shows that the value of chi-square (35.90) is significant at one per cent level indicating that the FE model has been preferred to RE model.

Among all the three models applied, the FE model serves as an appropriate model for further FE model has shown that the independent variables, namely, profitability, size, tangibility and liquidity have a significant positive influence on LTD ratio and the other two variables, namely, FCFTA and TR have a significant negative influence on LTD , the null hypothesis has been rejected in respect of these other variables, namely, NDTS, growth, BR and COB have not had a statistically significant influence on LTD , the null hypothesis has been accepted in respect of these variables.In respect of chemical sector, profitability, size, tangibility, liquidity, FCFTA and TR have influenced the leverage (LTD ratio) during the study lakshmi 110 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 Table 1 - LTD -Pooled OLS and Panel Data Regression-Chemical Pooled OLS Short term debt ratio influence on short term debt ratio: H0 : “The variables, namely, profitability, size, tangibility, NDTS, growth, BR, liquidity, FCFTA, COB and TR do not have a significant influence on short term debt ratio” It is clear from the table 2 that the regression co-efficient signs have been similar in FE and RE models but they differ in the Pooled OLS R2values have shown a moderate correlation between the selected independent variables and the STD ratio.Should i purchase college building research paper academic proofreading single spaced 5 days The F value and the Wald chi -square of all the models is significant at one per cent level revealing that there is a significant correlation between the selected independent variables and the STD LM test has displayed that the chi-square value (1544.83) is significant at one per cent level indicating that the RE model is preferred better than pooled OLS model Need to purchase building research paper confidentially 106 pages / 29150 words Standard College Junior Business.

83) is significant at one per cent level indicating that the RE model is preferred better than pooled OLS model.The result of Hausman specification test shows that the chi-square (49.75) is significant at one per cent level revealing that the FE model is more effective than the RE all the three models applied, the FE model has been taken for further analysis of the determinants of leverage Order an building research paper American US Letter Size 16 pages / 4400 words all the three models applied, the FE model has been taken for further analysis of the determinants of Determinants of Corporate Leverage A Study on Indian Chemical Sector International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 111 Table 2- STD - Pooled OLS and Panel Data Regression-Chemical Pooled OLS The FE model has identified that the variables, namely, profitability, size and NDTS have a significant positive influence on STD ratio and the variables, namely, tangibility, liquidity and FCFTA have a significant negative influence on STD ratio criminal justice.2, July 2013 111 Table 2- STD - Pooled OLS and Panel Data Regression-Chemical Pooled OLS The FE model has identified that the variables, namely, profitability, size and NDTS have a significant positive influence on STD ratio and the variables, namely, tangibility, liquidity and FCFTA have a significant negative influence on STD , the null hypo thesis has been rejected for these , the null hypothesis has been accepted in respect of these , it is concluded that the factors, namely, profitability, size, NDTS, tangibility, liquidity and FCFTA have influenced the leverage (short term debt ratio) of the chemical sector, during the study period.

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Total debt to total asset ratio The following null hypothesis has been framed to find whether the selected variables have a significant influence on total debt to total asset ratio: H0 : “The independent variables, namely, profitability, size, tangibility, NDTS, growth, BR, liquidity, FCFTA, COB and TR do not have a significant influence on TDTA ratio” R.Vijayalakshmi 112 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 Table 3 - TDTA - Pooled OLS and Panel Data Regression-Chemical Pooled OLS Source : Computed * significant at 5 per cent level ** significant at 1 per cent level It is evident from the table 3 that the regression coefficient signs have been similar in the FE and RE models for all the variables, except for the variable-tangibility, whereas, they differ in the pooled OLS model How to write \u003csc\u003ebiology\u003c\/sc\u003e lab report   pages- Who can do a engineering laboratory report american 76 pages nbsp Where to   Words 45 Page (s)/75 Words 46 Page (s)/12650 Words 47 Page (s)/12925 Words 48  .2, July 2013 Table 3 - TDTA - Pooled OLS and Panel Data Regression-Chemical Pooled OLS Source : Computed * significant at 5 per cent level ** significant at 1 per cent level It is evident from the table 3 that the regression coefficient signs have been similar in the FE and RE models for all the variables, except for the variable-tangibility, whereas, they differ in the pooled OLS model.

The R2values have revealed a moderate correlation between the selec ted independent variables and TDTA F value and Wald chi-square value have significant LM test has depicted that the value of chi-square (1566.77) is significant at one per cent level indicating the existence of panel effect; thereby, the RE model is preferred to Pooled OLS result of Hausman specification test has revealed that the value of chi-square is significant at one per cent level and hence, the FE model is more appropriate than the RE model Best website to purchase a homework functional analysis 100% plagiarism free one day Undergrad British Vancouver.

77) is significant at one per cent level indicating the existence of panel effect; thereby, the RE model is preferred to Pooled OLS result of Hausman specification test has revealed that the value of chi-square is significant at one per cent level and hence, the FE model is more appropriate than the RE model.

Among all the three models applied, the FE model serves as an appropriate model for further FE model has expressed that the variables, namely, profitability, size and NDTS have a significant positive influence on TDTA variables, namely, liquidity, FCFTA, COB and the TR have a significant negative influence on TDTA , the null hypothesis has been rejected in respect of these three variables namely, tangibility, growth and BR have not had a significant influence on the TDTA ratio Best website to purchase a homework functional analysis 100% plagiarism free one day Undergrad British Vancouver.Among all the three models applied, the FE model serves as an appropriate model for further FE model has expressed that the variables, namely, profitability, size and NDTS have a significant positive influence on TDTA variables, namely, liquidity, FCFTA, COB and the TR have a significant negative influence on TDTA , the null hypothesis has been rejected in respect of these three variables namely, tangibility, growth and BR have not had a significant influence on the TDTA ratio.Hence, the null hypothesis has been accepted for these general, the leverage of chemical sector has been determined by the variables, viz., profitability, size, NDTS, liquidity, FCFTA, COB and the TR during the period of Determinants of Corporate Leverage A Study on Indian Chemical Sector International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol ., profitability, size, NDTS, liquidity, FCFTA, COB and the TR during the period of Determinants of Corporate Leverage A Study on Indian Chemical Sector International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 113 Conclusion The study has concluded that profitability and size are the key determinants of leverage of Indian chemical sector.The findings of the study have endorsed the prescriptions of the trade off theory and signaling nces Journal of Nepalese Business Studies, December 2004, ad Rafiq, Asif Iqbal and Muhammad Afiq, “The determinants of capital structure of chemical industry in Pakistan”, The Lahore Journal of Economics, Summer 2008, Vol13, Issue 1, pp 139 - g paper series, electronic version, , September 2009, pp n Liu and Jing Ren and Yan Zhuang, “An empirical analysis on the capital structure of Chinese listed IT companies”, International Journal of Business Management August 2009, ational Research Journal of Finance and Economics, Issue 66, pp Ould Daoud Ellili and Sherine Farouk (2011).

Examining the capital structure determinants: empirical analysis of companies traded on Abu Dhabi Stock Exchange, Issue of Capital, optimal capital structure and Value of firm: An Empirical study of Indian companies, Vikalpa, of capital, capital structure and dividend policy, Finance India, Ramaswamy and Ramon Fernandez (1998).The leverage multiplier, equity levels and managerial policy choices, Proceedings of the Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies, Vol.The influence of nature of business on corporate debt ratios – empirical evidence from Indian corporate sector, Finance India, Vol.Santanu Kumar Ghosh and Paritosh Chandra Sinha (2009).Is there optimality in firms’ capital stucutre? An empirical study, Finance India, Vol 23, No.

114 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 Finances and Fund Flow in Chitradurga Zilla Panchayat in Karnataka state n kumar and G.Ravi Abstract: The 73rd amendment to the constitution of India in the year 1992 made it mandatory upon all the states to establish Panchayat Raj already well established Panchayat Raj System in the state of Karnataka made it easy for the state to adopt the provisions enshrined in the articles 243 to 243 O of the constitution.Karnataka, which had enacted legislation in the year 1983 to assign large number of functions to the different tiers of Panchayats passed a new panchayat raj act in 1993 and duly incorporated all the provisions of 73rd amendment act.

, Grama Panchayat at the village level, Taluk Panchayat at the taluk level and Zilla Panchayat at the district level was created as per the provisions of the new “Karnataka Panchayat Raj Act 1993”.

Currently, Karnataka has 5630 Grama Panchayats, 176 Taluk Panchayats, and 30 Zilla aka has scrupulously followed much before the 73 rd amendment act.An attempt has been made in this paper to sketch the finances of this institution, financial devolution made by the State to PRI and the best practices of Karnataka state in strengthening the Panchayat Raj System in Chitradurga Words: Panchayat Raj Institution, Finance, Zilla Panchayat, Taluk Panchayat, Gram Panchayat, Fund Flow, Grant Fund, Plan and Non Plan Introduction and Finances of Panchayat Raj Institutions in Karnataka state As per the Karnataka Panchayat Raj Act 1993, the state government have assigned 30 specific subjects to Grama Panchayats, 27 to Taluk Panchayats and 28 to Zilla Panchayats, comprising of numerous schemes and programmes for economic development and social justice, as listed in the eleventh schedule of gh the 73rd amendment act does not specify which tier of Panchayat Raj should perform which function, Karnataka have taken right measures to assign specific functions and roles to each tier and has also done a detailed activity mapping of the functions es and functionaries should follow the functions transferred in order to realize the impact of decentralisation and empowerment of rural finances of Panchayat Raj Institutions in Karnataka consist of mainly transfer of funds for specific purpose from State as well as Central governments and local revenue mobilization by the way of power to levy certain taxes, fees and rates.As per the provisions of Karnataka Panchayat Raj Act 1993, the Grama Panchayats in Karnataka are empowered to have indep endent source of revenue in addition to the specific purpose grants which they receive from state and central s, Zilla Panchayats and Taluk Panchayats do not have independent sources of revenue, instead they depend for finances on devolution of funds from the State and Central Karnataka Panchayat Raj Act 1993 has the following provisions pertaining to financial powers of Panchayat Raj Institutions in ure and Functions of Zilla Panchayat Chitradurga Chitradurga district consists of six taluks viz., Chitradurga, Challekere, Hiriyur, Holalkere, Hosadurga and Molakalmuru.There are 22 revenue hoblies, 185 Grama Panchayats, 946 inhabited villages and 113 Finances and Fund Flow in Chitradurga Zilla Panchayat in Karnataka state International Journal of Management and Development Studies, has one city municipal council and three town municipal councils and two pattana Zilla Panchayat (ZP),chitraduga came into existence subsequent to formation of Chitradurga district in the year 1997.

Chitradurga Zilla Panchayat is formed as per the Karnataka Panch ayat Raj Act, 1993 which implements decentralized planning and programme implementations at the grass root per the Karnataka Panchayat Raj Act, three tier system Administration have been introduced, i., Zilla Panchayats, Taluk Panchayats, Grama Panchayats at District, Taluk and village level durga Zilla Panchayat has an elected body consisting of 34 elected members and administrative body consisting of administration staff in different sections like Development, Administrati on, Planning, Accounts, DRDA and Council sections.Panchayat raj institutions in Chitradurga district have taken away measures to assign specific functions and roles to each tier did a detailed activity mapping of the functions es and functionaries should follow the functioning transfer in order to realize the impact of decentralisation and empowerment of rural finance of Panchayat Raj Institution in chitradurga consists of mainly transfer of funds for specific purpose from State as well as Central governments and local revenue ng Committees in Zilla Panchayat in Chitradurga The Zilla Panchayat has the following Standing Committees, namely as: - 1.Agricultural and Industries Committee Panchayath Raj (RDPR) Chitradurga is a major development functioning for the Rural department is implementing various schemes for the following causes.116 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.

2, July 2013 Plan & Non-plan funds are released by the State Government to the Z.P in a Quarterly basis & Zilla Panchayat in turn releases these funds to the District level Officers of different Departments, Taluk Panchayats & Grama Panchayats in monthly/Quarterly is also released from the Central Government to the various Programmes/Schemes implemented through the Zilla Panchayat & its subsidiary systems such as Taluk Panchayats & Grama d Funds developmental activities/works including the creation of the new infra structures & their maintenance.In addition, various centrally sponsored schemes such as MNREGA, 12th and 13th FINANCE, ARWS, IAY, SGSY, TSC the Welfare of the Scheduled castes & Tribes grants is also released through a separate programme called Special Component Programme (SCP).For the planned programmes the financial allocation is made by the Government on the basis of the follows, Population Non-Plan Funds (mainly the salary) & also the maintenance of the infrastructures which are already funds are exclusively released to the Zilla panchayat from the State onal grants Addition grants funds are not provided in the budget of the Zilla panchayat & hence it is called the extra budgetary or non-budgetary Grants.Usually it is released by the State /Cen tral Government to meet out the emergency needs such as to provide drinking water, formation of roads, to create rural employment at the drought prone areas, for the control of epidemic diseases and to meet the deficiency of the durga district planning process: In the year of 2007-08 Chitradurga district has a grant of Rs 205.

90 crores as a plan expenditure under main programmes and schemes, and also in non-plan there is 211.93 crores in different sectors for salary and maintenance all chitradurga district has a fund flow of Rs.25 crores per Gram panchayat, Grant for the next five years is as below, Finances and Fund Flow in Chitradurga Zilla Panchayat in Karnataka state International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 117 Table: I Fund Flow under Various Schemes : Only salary and maintains component covers under non -plan for various the plan there are 19 different programmes under which district plan has covered following needs of the ngs and additional school rooms are constructed.Under health and family welfare programme required drugs for the hospitals, is procured and also essential buildings are constructed.

Under rural water supply scheme all the villages are covered with 55 LPCD of water.Under different welfare programmes like SC/ST, BCM, Tribal etc the up g radation of the communities is taken tion and etc are provided to small and marginal formers.Under SGSY scheme SHG’s are provided with subsidy for different kind of activities.Under NREGA assured 100 days of employment is provided to unskilled laborers on demand and also created good assets.Under 12th finance, PMGSY and CMGSY the rural connectivity roads works are taken up.

Under Non-Plan schemes salaries are paid and maintenance of all infrastructure of the district under Zilla Panchayat chitradurga.some gaps which are not covered under the above schemes are proposed under sion where the State Government and Central government provides funds for the performance of functions specified in district panchayat shall perform such functions in accordance with the guidelines and norms lead a performance of the in common funds all infrastructure and other developments are carried out satisfactorily, but there are some areas where in the program me and the schemes cover under their Chitradurga district plan for 2007 -08 to 2011-12 is concentrated on activities are covered in programmes and schemes.Finances and Fund Flow in Chitradurga Zilla Panchayat in Karnataka state International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 119 References Publication, New aka Academic Foundation, New A G (2008), Report of Finance Commission in Karnataka State, Government of Karnataka.Ministry of Rural and panchayat raj Deportment, y M Chandra (2010),Institutions Decentralisation and Development; Prasaranga, Kannada University, y New Delhi State; Institute of Social and Economic Change .

,National Institute Public Finance and Polic y., (1996), Report State Finance Commission In Karnataka; Relating To Pannchayat Raj Institution in Karnataka Panchayat(2005) Report on zilla Panchayat, Panchayat (2010) Report on Zilla Panchayat, Chitradurga.120 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 Business Process Optimization in Fuel Stations Sanchit Kishan, Sri Sathyanarayanan G, Anand Narayanamoorthy and Badri Toppur Abstract: This empirical study intends to find out how fuel stations can increase their profitability by optimizing their business processes parameters like there are various ways as to how we can improve operational efficiency in fuel stations, ours will deal with how we can reduce carrying costs and transportation costs, among others, by having better reorder have decided to focus on having better reorder points only in Motor Spirit i.There is so much scope for increasing profitability by increasing the operating margin and this empirical study of ours deals with precisely the end of this empirical study we intend to have a developed a generic model that can be applied to any fuel station thereby eliminating the need for model also intends to find out the contribution percentage of each of the above factors in increasing the operating efficiency of petrol bunks.

With this knowledge, fuel stations can afford to focus their efforts on model s that are more profitable, thereby increasing their razor-thin operating implementing the simulation model of ours, a fuel station can find out its best reorder point and reduce unnecessary costs through it, thereby resulting in better operational efficiency and hence, higher r o d u c t i o n There is a misconception about fuel stations all over the fuel stations are supposed to be amongst the most dynamic businesses in terms of wheel falls, one would think that operating a fuel station would be both lucrative and recession r, it is a business that runs on thin operating margins and largely depends on the efficiency of its operating processes.A thumb rule of the industry says that a fuel station loses 40 % of its value in two weeks of non operating margins are squeezed by both buy and sell sides of the equation and are predominantly influenced by fluctuating demand and large variable costs that include inventory, supply chain, service delivery and maintenance ore the inevitable challenge lies in keeping the variable costs as low as this empirical study we would like to study the following in detail a.Factors that influence the variable costs of a fuel station b.Optimization of operating procedures such as: I.Inventory systems – Economic order quantity, safety stock levels chain cycles - Replenishment g system and waiting line models IV.

Material Requirement planning Theory and Hypothesis India is the 4th largest consumer of oil in the consumes about 3 million barrels of oil per day and the consumption enhances 4 to 5 percent per cater to its enormous needs it has around 35000 petrol stations, of which 60 % belongs to IOCL, 15 % each to BPCL and HPCL and the remaining belongs to smaller players like Shell, Essar and Reliance earlier researchattempted to gain a Bu s i n e s s P ro cess Optimization in Fuel St a t i o n s International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 121 crucial understanding of the key business strengths and weaknesses associated with the performance of Fuel Service also facilitated the evaluation of the effects of various costs, accountability and responsibilities of dealers, pertaining to operational procedures and gave an understanding of the flow of information from service stations, to evaluate the effects of the system on various role players and recommend improvements and to define an appropriate system solution that by means of cost and service improvements derive benefits to the dealers’ bottom-line (Msimango, Thabo, 2006).The main cost drivers in a fuel station are - number of stock-outs, stock level at the fuel station and process execution costs (work, transport -time here can be defined as the time between the start (measurement of the stock level) and the end (either the arrival of fuel or the decision not to place an order) of the on these drivers, an AS-IS model was s maps were used for visualisation of the s maps are the standard method for modelling and anal ysing in business of their main advantages is that employees can be quickly taught how to develop and validate these models.They enable analyses of the costs and time needed for the developed business models help to understand the current problems and also makes them more visible to all decision-makers in fuel main problems identified at the tactical level are: The stock level cannot be measured accurately with a measuring stick since the tank always contains some water (the exact quantity of water is unknown) The communication between various departments and companies is costly (using telephones, fax machines etc.) The transport trucks are not fully utilised.

A lot of fuel gets wasted due to evaporation loss during transit (especially in countries having high temperatures such as India).However, even bigger problems are found on a more strategic level, such as: The flow of information in the process is slow and costly; also the process is not being executed have much information about the truck fleet); The prediction of future demands is approximate, based on human tacit knowledge; Human limitations prevent the decision-maker from using all available information ( stock levels at all petrol stations); Each member in the chain is trying to attain its local optimum instead of the global chain’s optimization; and Consequently both the stock levels and transportation costs are higher than necessary.One study shows that the coordination of both reorder point and order quantity leads to increased supply chain profitability as well as Customer Service retailer's reorder point has a direct impact on product availability and customer service level (CSL) and therefore has a great impact on SC had adopted a two-stage SC with stochastic demand and lead times over multiple periods.( Kamal Chaharsooghi, hydari Jafar and Nakhai Kamabadi, Dec 2010, ) Sanchit Kishan, Sri Sathyanarayanan G, Anand Narayanamoorthy and Badri Toppur 122 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.

2, July 2013 Another study explored the possibility of deliberately biasing the selection of reorder point upwards so as to reduce the expected cost penalty associated with statistically estimated reorder point.

& Rahnama, Mina Rasty, 1987) Items with erratic demand patterns often overshoot their reorder levels.When demand is probabilistic, the only appropriate continuous review model for such items is the order point/order-up-to order points are calculated through the fill rate formula (the fraction of demand to be served from stock).This formula is revised for such a system and presented in a form suitable for resolving the order point in terms of a specified fill rate.A particular application using the Negative Binomial distribution for the demand pattern is detailed and comparisons are made to the situation ignoring these overshoots.A, 1985) Inventory efficiency based on reorder point is compared with MRP control logic and found that it requires a very perverse relationship between the forecast and actual demand before ROP beats MRP on inventory paper reported the results of simulation experiments that compared the inventory efficiency (i.

, the customer service level provided by a given level of inventory) for two different inventory of these policies uses time-phased information on future demands like that found in material requirements planning (MRP) systems, while the other (the reorder point or ROP policy) relies on forecasts implicitly based on average past demands.Robert & Whybark D Clay, Apr, 1992) Another study had analyzed the effects of timing and lot sizing on system performance and came up with an analytical framework that can be used to p redict the relative merits of converting to MRP in various operating Environments.( Bregman Robert L, 1994) To achieve required service level, simple approximations for the reorder point in periodic and continuous review inventory systems were studied and the sensitivity of the reorder point was measured to the higher moments of the demand distributions.H, Aug 1984) A model was created to convert a periodic review, constant lead time setting into one having continuous review and a random lead was intended to target desired values of (i) customer fill rate and (ii) average time between consecutive replenishments.P, Sep 2009) Method This study will involve collecting data from f uel stations on sales revenues, safety stock, annual demand and current ordering approach to be followed is gathering data through involved in this case is primary data and it is this collected data, we propose to calculate optimal - re-order point, economic order quantity, ordering would also Monte Carlo Simulation to arrive at augmented profits for the above said optimal levels.

The questionnaire had the following questions: 1) Fuel Station Name? 2) Location? Bu s i n e s s P ro cess Optimization in Fuel St a t i o n s International Journal of Management and Development Studies, of orders placed to suppliers/ month viii.Profit margin Data Collection Process and Analysis From the above questionnaire, extensive details were collected from a fuel station in Karur district of Tamil details include balance sheet, Profit-Loss statement, Trial Balance, Stock Replenishment Sheet, Daily sales details, LSR and DIP operational and non-operational overhead expenses were also collected when we visited the fuel station in this data gave us a broad idea of the costs involved in running a petrol pump and the razor thin margins with which they this data we arrived at parameters like holding costs, ordering costs and purchase costs.This calculation of H and S are available from the Annual cost = Annual Purchase Cost + Annual Ordering Cost + Annual Holding Cost TC = DC + (D/Q)*S + (Q/2)*H Where: S= Ordering Cost per Order Sanchit Kishan, Sri Sathyanarayanan G, Anand Narayanamoorthy and Badri Toppur 124 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 By equating the annual ordering cost and annual holding cost parameters, we could arrive at the order quantity which is the optimal value tha t reduces costs and maximizes profits called the ‘Economic Order Quantity’.This EOQ is used to find the reorder point.

In our case, the EOQ and reorder point values have been found to be 6000 litres and 14 days further analyse the valid ity of these findings we ran a Monte Carlo simulation which shows that for such an EOQ and reorder point, and a given safety stock of 750 liters there is zero stock out condition and zero opportunity simulation was run for 365 days and it surmounted to increase in profits of close to 5%.Results and Recommendation Based on the simulation that we performed, we would recommend the following to the fuel station: We recommend that the fuel station increases its order quantity from 4000 litres to 6500 litres per ue with the current fixed order quantity model but, the reorder times per year can be reduced from the existing 36 to 24 amounting to twice a month rather than the current practice of having it thrice a month.By doing so, we would achieve a profitability increase of 5% thereby improving the operational also find that in the current model, an excess stock of around 1000 litres is maintained which has a negative effect on the annual holding , by maintaining a safety stock of around 750 litres, we not only reduce the holding costs but also we see to it that there is a zero stock out sion The Objective of the study was to provide with an operational tool to identify Economic Order Quantity and Reorder points for a fuel tool only needs the Order book sales data and Balance sheet Data.Therefore, it can be applied to other Petrol Bunks as have successfully applied the simulation tool for one of the fuel stations and therefore believe that it can be extensively used and expanded for further tions and Suggestions for Future Research The Simulation model developed is not an exhaustive one to cover all efficiency measures of a fuel only provides a primary skeleton for calculation of certain parameter like Economic order quantity and Reorder rmore, the calculation of cost such as holding cost fro m Balance sheet data needs to be accurate enough to merit the reliable result.Also, the limitation is that the Reorder points are different for motor spirit and HSD i.

So, in such a scenario if there are different reordering dates for petrol and diesel, a fuel station has to compromise on a date that minimizes the losses to the least s i n e s s P ro cess Optimization in Fuel St a t i o n s International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 125 Our suggestion for future studies would be to implement the same model for diesel and find out its reorder point.El fanatico post with carousel Now the challenge is to find a common reorder point that would best serve the interests of the fuel station in terms of its operational can be done by simulating the petrol and diesel data at the same onally, we can also develop and implement a queuing simu lation model to figure out the periods in which the fuel station has the maximum traffic which needs to be attended with better operational efficiency Tadele Mamo at Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural ResearchR.Dayanandan, Hawasa University, EthiopiaThe most important objective of this paper is to attempt a detail analysis of pulseKey Words: Industrial Workers, Health Insurance, Awareness, Enrollment, Coimbatore.Additionally, we can also develop and implement a queuing simu lation model to figure out the periods in which the fuel station has the maximum traffic which needs to be attended with better operational efficiency.Furthermore, service time per vehicle can be reduced by providing a similar model to reduce attending time per sion This study has provided us with a simulation model that can be applied to fuel stations all across the globe Yara Annual report 2014 web Yara sion This study has provided us with a simulation model that can be applied to fuel stations all across the greatest strength of this study lies in the fact that it helps a very common place like a fuel station where the use of analytics and business models are non-existent Yara Annual report 2014 web Yara greatest strength of this study lies in the fact that it helps a very common place like a fuel station where the use of analytics and business models are this simulation model and operational efficiency techniques, fuel stations can improve in a lot of ways for the better and that will result in increased revenues .By this simulation model and operational efficiency techniques, fuel stations can improve in a lot of ways for the better and that will result in increased beneficiaries don’t stop with just the owners as the benefit s of increased revenue are more likely to be passed on to the employees and customers of the fuel station like us.This can only help us for the better and is a win-win-win scenario for all the parties nces re-engineering:A case from developing country, African Journal of Business Management isciplinary Journal of Information, Knowledge, and Management Volume 1, 2006 Msimango, Thabo, (2004) Optimizing business processes for managing service stations, Cranefield College of Project and Programme management publication; September 2006 Kamal Chaharsooghi, hydari Jafar & Nakhai Kamabad, (2010), Simultaneous coordination of order quantity and reorder point in a two-stage supply chain, Computers & Operations Research; Dec2011, Vol.38 Issue 12, p1667-1677 Silver, Edwadr A.

& Rahnama, Mina Rasty, (1987), Biased selection of the inventory reorder point when demand parameters are statistically estimated, Engineering Costs & Production Economics; 1987, Vol.H , (Aug 1984), Simple approximations for the reorder point in periodic and continuous review (s,S) inventory systems with service level constraints, European Journal of Operational Research; Aug84, Vol.P, (Sep 2009), Determining the reorder point and order -up-to- level in a periodic review system so as to achieve a desired fill rate and a desired average time Sanchit Kishan, Sri Sathyanarayanan G, Anand Narayanamoorthy and Badri Toppur 126 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 between replenishments, Journal of the Operational Research Society; Sep2009, Vol.60 Issue 9, p1244-1253 Planning Inventory Control Logic, Decision Sciences; Mar/Apr92, Vol.

23 Issue 2, p332-342 Bregman Robert L, (1994).Engineering Costs & Producti on Economics; 1987, An analytical framework for comparing Material Requirements Planning to reorder point systems, European Journal of Operational Research; 5/26/1994, Vol.A, (1985) Exact fill rates for items with erratic demand patterns, INFOR; May85, Vol.23 Issue 2, p171-181 Bu s i n e s s P ro cess Optimization in Fuel St a t i o n s International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 127 Ap p endix Fuel station name: Bagirathi Auto Needs Location : New Salem byepass road, Karur Annual petrol demand: 1,50,000 KL Cost price of petrol: `68.

50 Safety Stock: 750 litres List of Contributors Khalsa Girls College, Punjab, a, Assistant Professor, School of Social Science and Languages, VIT University, s, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, sivayya, Assistant Professor, Gonna Institution of Technology and Management Studies, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, g Selvi, Assistant Professor of Commerce, Rani Anna Government College for Women, sity, Kadapa-516003, Andhra s, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Ahmad Bhat is a Research Scholar (Ph.) in the Department of Business and Financial Studies, University of Kashmir.Ramanathan, Principal, Asan Memorial College of Arts and Science, Chennai Commerce, Asan Memorial College of Arts and Science, Chennai a Devi, Assistant Professor, Commerce, Chikkanna Government Arts College, Tirupur, Tamil Nadu Women, Peelamedu, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu.Praveen kumar, Research Scholar, Department of Economics, Annamalai University, Tamil Sathyanarayanan G, Treasury Relationship Manager, Axis Bank, Karur.Anand Narayanamoorthy, Business Development Manager, Marg Ltd, Toppur, Associate Professor, Great Lakes Institute of Management, Chennai.

130 International Journal of Management and Development Studies, Vol.2, July 2013 International Journal of Management and Development Studies (A Double-blind Peer Reviewed Quarterly Journal) Subscription Form Name GRABS Educational Charitable Trust (Registration No: 148/2013, under Tamil Nadu Trust Act ) Registered by Tamil Nadu for the purpose of publishing research work in Management and Dev elopment Studies and associated publications like magazines and trust provides grant to young scholars to conduct research in social broad purpose of the Trust is to support research and develop excellence in research activities in the social sciences.The trust committed to improving students’ expertise in the area of social science through workshops and seminars.defend their interests and cooperate with other institutions in the organization of workshops and zation of conferences / who are interested to organize such conferences/workshops may contact Secretary, Grabs Educational Charitable Trust ( email protected ) with a also look for suggestions from the academic donations to the trust are used for research and related activities.

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